Western Borrowed Muslim
The Muslims have been a part of the American History ever since the Pre-Columbian times. The Early explorers used maps that were made by Muslims. At the time, the Muslims had advance Geographical and Navigational information. Also, aside from this, during the time when African slaves were imported in the Americas, half of the slave population could be estimated to be Muslims. The Msulims arrived in Europe in different ways, these were through, Muslim Explorers, Muslim Armies, Traders, and through Scientific Research and Arabic Manuscripts.
Europe being influenced by Muslim Culture was famous for exploring the Western Continent. These are some instances in History that could usher a great influence in Culture. Islamic Science In 750 AD, Abbasid caliphs of Baghdad, helped Science not only to thrive, but also spread towards the West(Spain) and East(Central Asia) in a period of over six hundred years. Influenced by Greek, Indian and Persian Culture, the early Arab Muslim scholars were able accrue an insurmountable amount of scientific knowledge. In doing so, they were able to make it flourish through their own innovations and discoveries.
Astronomy and Mathematics were two of the bodies of knowledge which the Muslims paid attention to. Astronomy was particularly important to them specifically because of their religion. In Muslim Religion, one must pray towards a specific direction, specifically towards Mecca. Wherever a Muslim follower is, he must pray towards that direction, and at the time, they did not rely on any instruments such as a compass, but simply relied on the stars. Mathematics is relatively important to them as well with regards to dividing their property with regards to Inheritance in the Islamic Law.
Although Science developed with the help of Islam’s, there are no active figures in Science that were Muslims. But during the 12th and 13th Centuries, the Research paper done by these people were translated from Arab to Latin and was passed to the western continents. Medical Arts A book that may be found in on-line, Islamic Medicine, Proviedes studies and various essays pertaining to different Physicians and scholars which would contain chapters on Islamic Medical Ethics, euthanasia and AIDS.
The advance stages of Arab Medicine came in 12th and 13th Century, wherein we can find entries pertaining to Medical Schools flourishing in the Muslim Society. Some achievements of Arab medicine that were overlooked by the west was Muslim(Arab) roots of European Medicine, and the Discovery of how Pulmonary Circulation works in the Body. In fact it was discovered later by two doctors in the U. S. that the Pulmonary Circulation was indeed discovered by a Muslim that goes by the name of Ibn Nafis.
This proves that the Pulmonary Circulation was not discovered in the 16th Century by the Europeans, but by Ibn Nafis who was actually a famous physician of the 13th Century. Alchemy and Chemistry Alchemy is often related to magic. It is described as the Magical transformation of different kinds of metal, specifically; Lead, into gold which is the most precious metal of the time. Alchemy in reality is the precursor to Modern Chemistry as we know it. A record from the 14th Century of the Arabs maid by Abu al-Qasim Muhammad Ibn Ahmed al-‘Iraqi, pertained to a book which was about the cultivation of Gold. Literature and Poetry
An Arab named Al Biruni, born in Khawarizm(Caspian Basin), who lived in 1050’s was a man of letters and words who gave the Arabic Culture a universal dimension. Al wrote in the Persian and Arabic languages. He said, “I was brought up in one language (that of Khawarizm) … I learnt Arabic and Persian later, and I therefore come as an outsider to both these languages, my command of which I strive to perfect. But I must confess that I would rather be insulted in Arabic than praised in Persian. ” In the 8th Century, the first Arabic Literature that could be called a masterpiece was “Ibn Al-Muqaffa’s Kalila Wa Dimna”.
This was an indication to the nature of this epoch and also it was a collection of Indian Fables translated in the Arab language. These Indian fables may it be the Persian or the original Sanskrit version is now lost. Arab grammarians were able to establish rules for the language which was developed to be pure and as much as possible, close to its origins. This was the time that the first Arab dictionary was created. During this time, the paper industry developed and the rulers began to take a liberal approach with regards to arts.
Soon after, the aristocracy supported and patronized the evolution of Literature. Literary genres such as the Epistle, the short story(risala) and the maqama(a mix of diction and reality in a form of a rhythmic prose, where in the action is centered towards one character), prospered. It was at this time that the champions of Reason started to debate against the conservative majority, whether to keep their native tongue or propagate diversity. The Arabian Nights, Alf Layla Wa Layla, or the World famous “A Thousand and One Nights” is an essence of ‘peddlers’ literature’.
Peddler’s Literature in laymen’s terms would mean a form of public speaking. In Muslim countries, public speaking is a form of entertainment or communication that is loved by all. Public Speeches are done in city squares and is often used to deliver poetry, which comes with gestures. The Public speaker must have a god command of the literary piece and must also command the public to continually gain their attention. Geometrical Ornamentation Because of the Geometrical style of Ornamentation, the art of Muslims moved towards pure abstraction.
Art of Astronomers and Mathematicians would be described by the series of modifications and superposing of star like shapes with six, eight, ten, or even twelve points. With these kinds of designs which has countless foci, constitutes an invitation to meditate. Moral System Islam has done a really good job of creating foundation for Human rights all through out the world which is not only observed but respected as well, what ever the circumstance may be. Not only do Muslims provide legal safeguards but they also provide and effective moral system.
This moral system can be discussed as such: Anything that would lead to the welfare of an individual or the welfare of the society is morally good, and such, whatever provides to be injurious to the society and its people may be considered as morally bad. Muslims have never claimed the right to call their Moral system to be one of its kind, or a breakthrough when it comes to other moral systems, nor did it ever seek to minimize or exaggerate the importance of other moral systems. They address the well known moral virtues with equal importance with regards to its role in the scheme of life.
The Muslims wanted to ensure that their sense of morality overcomes one’s selfish desire. May it be literature, science, medicine, astrology, geometry or Alchemy; Muslims have indeed made a mark in History. Their culture is rich and has done a great job of influencing other nations, specifically the Western Nations. The Influence was neither forced nor was it intentional. It was the inevitable outcome of two civilizations meeting, mixing and taking the best from each other at the boundaries of the Muslim encroachment on the Christian Civilization in Europe.