Transitions: Primary Education and Young People
* Identify the transitions experienced by most children and young people. Transitions are the moves children and young people make from home to nursery, from stage to stage (and through the Curriculum for Excellence levels), from primary to secondary, between schools, and from secondary to further education and beyond. Transitions and changes are part of everyone’s life. When these transitions work well they help children and young people to develop confidence and acquire skills to manage future change in their lives.
The vast majority of children and young people look forward to moving on, in learning and in life, and these moves almost always turn out to be positive experiences. However, transitions can also be challenging and support from parents and staff at school can help the transitions go more smoothly. All children and young people benefit from support from parents and staff as they make these important transitions. Transition into pre-school or nursery Starting nursery is an exciting step, and listening and talking to children about this change in their lives will help to prepare them for a good start.
Parents may also have questions and concerns at this time and should not be afraid to ask questions of the nursery staff. Parents have an important role to help and support staffs in getting to know their children by letting them know about their child’s interests and any health or personal issues which may affect the child’s learning. Transition from pre-school to primary school Primary teachers work closely with nursery staff and parents to ensure that information about each child’s learning and achievements is passed on.
This will help ensure that their learning and development continues without interruption. Staff will also share other information which will help the teacher to support each child’s learning – for example relevant health issues, friendship groups and preferred ways of working. Transition from stage to stage in primary school Generally there are no formal transition meetings for parents or pupils at this stage (although there can be, depending on the school and/or the needs f the individual child), but pupils often get a chance to meet their new teacher for the next session. Transition from primary to secondary school The primary school will share relevant personal information, profiles of progress and achievements across the whole curriculum with the secondary school that the child is attending to ensure that young people’s learning continues with minimum interruption. This high level of planning for transition between primary and secondary school ensures that most young people will make a smooth transfer.
As children get older they don’t always share information quite as readily as they did when they were younger. Teachers understand this and there will always be someone available in the secondary school to talk to about this important stage in a young person’s life. Parents can speak to the school if they are unsure who best to approach. Transition – Puberty Puberty is the stage in life when a child’s body develops into an adult’s body. The changes take place gradually, usually between the ages of 10 and 16.
During this time children change emotionally as well as physically. During puberty young people tend to focus more on friends and relationships outside the family. Relationships with parents and siblings can become strained. As a parent you may feel during this time that you’re no longer relevant to your child’s life. This is almost certainly not the case. Sometimes your child may appear to be rejecting and ignoring you. Despite this, you remain their primary role model and a central focus of their life. Transitions – preparing to leave school
Many of them will stay at school to study for further qualifications, others may choose a blend of school and college learning or work placement; some will plan to move on to university, college or a training programme or to get a job. Regardless of what each young person’s post – 16 learning choice is, it will be important for teachers to work with them and parents and others to make sure they find the option which will be best for them. This can involve working with other learning providers and support agencies, and taking part in programmes delivered in partnership with other agencies, e. . youth work, often out of school. * Describe with examples how transitions may affect children and young people’s behaviour and development. Most transitions have short-term or long-term effect on children’s development and behaviour. Long term effects: • Self harming • Withdrawal • Avoiding social contact • Lack of concentration • Not learning/developing • Low self confidence and self esteem • Strained relationships. For example, bereavement will upset the child and make him aggressive with other children.
Short term effects: • Outbursts of anger • Crying and tearfulness • Clinginess/need for affection • Withdrawal • Unreasonable behaviour • Tantrums in younger children • Regression in behaviour • Difficulty sleeping • Loss of appetite • Loss of motivation • Lack of concentration. . For example, when the child starts to wet himself or start using babyish language after speaking clearly – Communication and intellectual development if children start to avoid social contact, they don’t care about school work, and lack of concentration. Social, emotional, and behaviour if children’s confidence and self-esteem are affected, if they show unwanted behaviour for attention and if they can’t make friends. * Identify the transitions that some children may experience. The diverse range of transitions faced by children and young people includes: • Starting or moving school • Bereavement: All looked after children and young people experience loss of some kind; for some this includes the death of someone close to them. They need sensitive and timely care and support to manage the impact of bereavement throughout their childhood and into adulthood.
Reactions identified as common among bereaved children and young people include: • sleep disturbances, insomnia, nightmares • eating disorders, loss of appetite • toilet problems: they may regress to soiling or wetting • new physical disorders, such as asthma and eczema • anxiety, separation anxiety, mood swings, withdrawal, aggressive behaviours, school phobia • poor concentration • possible guilt problems: thinking they are responsible for the loss • loss of memory, earning difficulties • hyperactivity, acting out, taking risks. Parents splitting up • Illness (their own or a parent’s or sibling’s) • Changing friendship groups • Entry to, or leaving, a pupil referral unit: • Moving through child health services into adult services • Coming out as gay or lesbian • Leaving home. Young people and children will need help and support from peers and adults to successfully make the transition to the next stage in their life. The nature and timing and giver of the support will vary depending on the individual’s needs and circumstances.