The Marginal Population Of Mumbai Health And Social Care Essay
The paper tries to give an penetration about the exclusion of the unseeable population in Mumbai by a peculiar wellness strategy implemented in the province of Maharashtra. The paper besides highlights some of the issues faced by this peculiar group from the experience of the field as a pupil societal worker The chief statement of this paper is the usage of specific standards in placing donees for the strategy which is already debatable and has been contested by many intellectuals in India thereby excepting meriting donees which is beyond the purpose a public assistance province.
“ Welfare province is a construct of authorities in which the province plays a cardinal function in the protection and publicity of the economic and societal wellbeing of its citizens. It is based on the rules of equality of chance, just distribution of wealth, and public duty for those unable to avail themselves of the minimum commissariats for a good life ” ( Beginnings: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.britannica.com ) . “ The Encyclopaedia of Social Sciences describes a public assistance province as a province which takes up the duty to supply a minimal criterion of subsistence to its citizens. Therefore, in a public assistance province, the disposal enters into economic, political, societal and educational life of persons. And it provides services to persons, right from an person ‘s birth to decease ” ( Social Welfare Administration: Concept, Nature and Scope, moodle.tiss.edu ) . In a public assistance province, the province takes the duty to function the aged, ill, orphans, widows, helpless, oppressed and the handicapped people whenever they are in demand of services. As a public assistance province the province implements assorted public assistance strategies for the citizens at big. The public assistance province typically includes proviso of wellness services, basic instruction, and lodging ( in some instances at low cost or free of charge ) etc. for the populace at big. When we talk about a public assistance province, the policies are inclusive of Torahs, directive, and planning in the Fieldss of employment, revenue enhancement, societal insurance and societal aid and population policy etc.
The modern usage of the term public assistance province is coupled with the wide-ranging steps of societal insurance adopted in 1948 by Britain on the footing of the study on Social Insurance and Allied ServicesA ( 1942 ) . In the twentieth century, as the earlier construct of the inert individualistic province was steadily abandoned, about all provinces ( in the western states ) sought to supply at least some of the steps of societal insurance associated with the rules of public assistance province. Therefore, in the United States came up with theA ” New Deal ” A of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, and theA ” Fair Deal ” A of President Harry S. Truman, and a big portion of the domestic plans of ulterior presidents were based on the rules of the public assistance province ( Beginnings: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.britannica.com ) .
During the clip of British regulation in India, from the early nineteenth century till India ‘s independency, the welfare-political sphere of India has witnessed the formation of a great trade of societal motions, rooted from distinguishable, and aggressively divided societal categories like the dramatis personae and, subsequently on, spiritual communities of that clip who resentfully opposed the active badgering province of societal personal businesss ( Aspalter 2003 ) . Though it was excessively early to believe about societal security programs and other meaningful societal policy steps, during the British regulation in India, the Government did establish a series of societal policy statute law which focused chiefly on the decrease of societal diswelfare instead than the construct of new signifiers of public assistance plans and ordinances ( Aspalter 2003 ) . During that clip Social statute law, aimed at the stoping of harmful societal patterns and societal inequalities, patterns like kid matrimony, limitation on widow rhenium matrimony, cast based favoritism etc.
By presenting the first societal security statute law of modern India, Workmen ‘s Compensation Act 1923 the Indian societal security system made the first of import measure in way of a notable public assistance system. The act has proviso for compensation for accidents taking to decease, or entire or partial disability for more than three yearss, if the accident occurred in the class of employment, compensation for occupational disease etc ( Chowdhry 1985, Cited in Aspalter 2003, pp. 156-157 ) . The period following the divider, the Indian authorities passed a series of new Torahs with respect to labour and societal public assistance, even before the operation of the new fundamental law in 1950 ( Goel and Jain 1988, Cited in Aspalter 2003, pp 169-160 ) . After 1950, the Indian authorities of India undertook many attempts in the field of societal security ( Aspalter 2003 ) , “ Over the old ages the authorities established, in add-on, illness insurance, a pension program, pregnancy benefits, particular disablement benefits, infirmary leave, a productivity-linked fillip strategy, assorted decreases of lodging, electricity, and H2O rates, a deposit-linked insurance strategy ( which functions similar to a life insurance ) , and death-cum-retirement tip for Cardinal Government employees. Employees of public sector projects and other independent organisations may gain from Employees State Insurance, Employees Family Pension Scheme, lodging benefits, particular societal aid strategies for handicapped individuals, widows, dependent kids, etc ” ( Aspalter 2003 ) .
Till now India has witnessed assorted strategies, policies, ordinances and statute laws etc aimed at the public assistance of its citizens, the lone inquiry remains is that how the province has been able to turn this policies into world, inclusive of all citizens of the state particularly the marginal ‘s. The ulterior portion of this paper will seek to critically see a wellness strategy launched in the State of Maharashtra meant of the poorer subdivision of the society which aims at supplying free wellness strategies to BPL households. It will be chiefly based on unrecorded experience from the Fieldss as a pupil Social Worker.
Rajiv Gandhi Jeevandayee Arogya Yojana ( RGJAY )
The Maharashtra authorities launched the Rajiv Gandhi Jeevandayi Arogya Yojana on 18th December 2011 with the purpose to enable households with one-year income of less than Rs. 1 million rupees to avail free medical installations deserving Rs. 1.5 million. The Maharashtra province Health Minister Suresh Shetty announced that said strategy, when to the full implemented, would profit close to 2.5 billion households ( The Hindu, 19 Dec. 2011 ) . The strategy will be implemented throughout the province of Maharashtra in phased mode for a period of 3 old ages. The strategy covers eight territory of the province boulder clay now ( Gadchiroli, Amravati, Nanded, Sholapur, Dhule, Raigad, Mumbai and Suburbs ) .
The strategy is aimed at bettering medical entree installation for both BPL and APL households which will in bend enhance the quality of medical attention to BPL and APL households. The donees will each acquire a wellness insurance policy and the EMIs of which will be paid by the State authorities. The strategy will widen quality medical attention for identified forte services, necessitating hospitalization for surgeries and therapies or audiences, through an identified web of wellness attention suppliers. The Scheme will supply coverage for run intoing all disbursals associating to hospitalization of the beneficiary up to Rs. 1, 50,000/- per household per twelvemonth in any of the Empanelled Hospital topic to Box Ratess on cashless footing through Health cards or valid Orange/Yellow Ration Card. The benefit shall be available to each and every member of the household on floater footing i.e. the entire one-year coverage of 1.5 million rupees can be availed by one person or jointly by all members of the household. The Scheme will cover the full cost of intervention of the patient from day of the month of describing to his discharge from infirmary including complications if any, doing the dealing genuinely cashless to the patient. In case of decease, the passenger car of dead organic structure from web infirmary to the village/township would besides be portion of bundle. The Network Hospitals will besides supply free follow-up audience, nosologies, and medical specialties under the strategy up to 10 yearss from the day of the month of discharge. A When the beneficiary visits the selected web infirmary and services of selected web infirmary, harmonizing to the strategy shall be made available ( Capable to handiness of beds ) . In case of non- handiness of beds at web infirmary, the installation of cross referral to nearest another Network infirmary is to be made available and Arogyamitra ( the staff covering with the said strategy in a web infirmary ) will besides supply the donee with the list of nearby web infirmaries.
All eligible households in the enforced territories will be provided with Rajiv Gandhi Jeevandayee Arogya Yojana Health Cards though this has non implemented wholly till now.
For the clip being till the issue of wellness cards, the valid Orange/Yellow Ration Card with Aadhaar figure or, any Photo ID card of beneficiary ( if Aadhaar figure is non available ) issued by Government bureaus ( Driving License, Election ID, ) to correlate the patient name and exposure is accepted in stead of wellness card to avail the benefits by a donee. The Health Cards to be issued will be used for the intent of placing beneficiary households in the household under the said Scheme. The Family Health Cards will be issued by utilizing informations from valid Yellow or Orange ration cards coupled with Aadhaar Numberss issued by UID governments.
Till now from July 2nd 2012 there is 78919 households have been registered under this strategy and 154571 patients have been benefited. Total of 43503 surgeries/therapies has been performed including both authorities and private infirmaries.
( Beginnings: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.jeevandayee.gov.in )
The fringy population of Mumbai and the RGJAY
One-half of the population in Mumbai is either homeless or lives in informal or semi lasting lodging. Harmonizing to the 2001 nose count of India, out of 11.9 million people populating in the metropolis, 5.8 million people lives in shanty towns or slums or on pavings ( Levinson, 2004 ) . A turning figure ofA migrantsA looking for employment and better life criterions are rapidly fall ining Mumbai ‘s stateless population. NGO’sA are assisting to alleviate the homelessness crisis in Mumbai, but these organisations are non plenty to work out the full job. And there are less figure of NGO ‘s working with this population with respect to wellness issues of this peculiar population. As I have been working with this population since the beginning of the MA class in TISS, I have some basic apprehension of this peculiar population and their issues with wellness and entree to wellness attention.
Health attention for stateless people or people in destitution is a major public wellness challenge in Mumbai. They are more likely to endure hurts and medical jobs because their life style on the street, which besides includes hapless nutrition, exposure to extreme conditions conditions, and a higher opportunity of indulging in force and dependence to chemical substance and alcohol addiction. Yet at the same clip, they have small or no entree to public medical services. Many a times working as a pupil societal worker at the bureau where I have been placed, had to reason with hospital governments to acquire a street patient admitted. Unless they are non accompanied by any 3rd party ( NGO or the Police ) the infirmaries barely admits them. They are denied of basic installations of wellness attention. This peculiar population frequently finds troubles in keeping their paperss like individuality cogent evidence paperss, Because stateless people normally have no topographic point at all to hive away their ownerships, they often lose their ownerships, including their designation and other paperss, or happen them destroyed by constabulary or BMC which is really common in Mumbai. One a young person from Murti Galli, Khar route narrated me how he lost his paperss in Mumbai inundations, 2006. Many times they are chased off from the railroad platforms, foot waies etc. Without an ID cogent evidence, they are denied to entree many societal services schemes. Many do non possess basic citizenship cards, like elector ‘s ID, ration cards etc. Sing at the scope of exposures that this peculiar population faces and their issues with wellness, I have the sentiment that they should be the precedence as a mark group in any public assistance strategies.
As a typical societal public assistance strategy RGJAY has neglected this peculiar unseeable population by utilizing a debatable standard to aim population ‘Within India, there has been turning controversy around the appraisal of poorness, peculiarly in the period of economic reforms. First, there are relentless dissensions among economic experts on whether the rate of poorness diminution after economic reforms was slower than in the preceding period. Second, the displacement to targeted, instead than universal, public assistance strategies has witnessed the usage of poorness estimations to make up one’s mind on the figure of families eligible to entree these strategies ‘ ( Ramakumar 2010 ) . The appraisal of poorness in India is controversial, with many committees coming up with different poorness lines. ‘Errors of “ incorrect exclusion ” in targeted programmes in India are due to the separation of the procedures of ( a ) the appraisal of the figure of hapless and ( B ) the designation of the hapless. It is for the absence of a dependable and executable method of uniting appraisal and designation that political and societal motions have been demanding the universalisation of public assistance strategies like the PDS ‘ ( Ramakumar 2010 ) .
The RGJAY has besides used the undependable BPL/APL cards to place the donees excepting many of the population who needs such strategy the most. It ‘s high clip the authorities as a public assistance province device new aiming system for public assistance strategies which is inclusive of all the fringy and unseeable population, they are the 1 who needs such intercession the most, or universalise basic public assistance strategies with respect to wellness, nutrients and support etc.