Posted: July 7th, 2021
I. Definition and Importance of Political Science These are the varied definitions of Political Science as it originally emphasized by the Greek term “polis” for city-state and “scire” means to “know”: 1) It is the science that studies the political power and authority of the state and government. 2) It is the systematic study of the institution, organization, processes and laws of the government. 3) It is the study of politics that may influence the government structures and processes in a given society. ) It is how the branches of government perform the various political task such as the delivery of basic services. 5) It is the exercise of sovereign political right of the state and government to carry its task for the improvement of quality of life in the society Generally, the importance of political science is the application of political powers and authority in the realm of government structures. The ordinary citizens may know and learn about their political rights and privileges from a given form of government including the political structure and processes of the state. 1.
The knowledge of human rights and privileges will educate the citizens about their role in the political affairs of the state particularly in political rights : a) The right to vote (suffrage);b) The constitutional rights and privileges ( due process of law); c) the right in providing the basic services such as education, health and sanitation, employment and other public support. 2. The study of political science motivates the citizens to participate in the political activities of the state as to achievement the development thrust of the government in relation to the improvement of quality of life. . The political science concepts on democracy, dictatorship and power structures give the citizen full understanding as to the consequences on the individual political action as defined by the political power and authority of the state. 4. The concept of politics may well be studied in the political science not simply in the art of persuasion and influence that the citizens learn about also how these political concept area applied in the society. 5.
The comprehensive study on the branches, forms and systems of government provide the individual better understanding in the concept of separation of powers, parliamentary system, diplomatic immunity, human rights, general welfare, social services From the understandings of these basic concepts of government, state, laws and institutions those who would study political science must know its importance and function, relationship with other discipline and broader understanding to its specific roles of individual in a civilized society.
The students and professionals should not only know the political theories but also deeper insights as to its application in their own field of expertise. Thus the study of political science will also include the empirical investigation of political facts through social research and the application of critical thinking. The key words in the comprehensive analysis on the principles of political science are state, government, law, institution, power relationships, legal process, constitutions and politics.
These are the important dimensions to study political science that need to be constantly in touch to mold the citizens in achieving quality of life to our society. Definition: Political science is the academic subject centering on the relations between governments and other governments, and between governments and peoples. II. state (stt) n. 1. A condition or mode of being, as with regard to circumstances: a state of confusion. 2. A condition of being in a stage or form, as of structure, growth, or development: the fetal state. 3.
A mental or emotional condition: in a manic state. 4. Informal A condition of excitement or distress. 5. Physics The condition of a physical system with regard to phase, form, composition, or structure: Ice is the solid state of water. 6. Social position or rank. 7. Ceremony; pomp: foreign leaders dining in state at the White House. 8. a. The supreme public power within a sovereign political entity. b. The sphere of supreme civil power within a given polity: matters of state. 9. A specific mode of government: the socialist state. 10.
A body politic, especially one constituting a nation: the states of Eastern Europe. 11. One of the more or less internally autonomous territorial and political units composing a federation under a sovereign government: the 48 contiguous states of the Union. adj. 1. Of or relating to a body politic or to an internally autonomous territorial or political unit constituting a federation under one government: a monarch dealing with state matters; the department that handles state security. 2. Owned and operated by a state: state universities. r. v. stat·ed, stat·ing, states To set forth in words; declare. III. gov·ern·ment ? ? [guhv-ern-muhnt, ? er-muhnt] Show IPA noun 1. the political direction and control exercised over the actions of the members, citizens, or inhabitants of communities, societies, and states; direction of the affairs of a state, community, etc. ; political administration: Government is necessary to the existence of civilized society. 2. the form or system of rule by which a state, community, etc. , is governed: monarchical government; episcopal government. . the governing body of persons in a state, community, etc. ; administration. 4. a branch or service of the supreme authority of a state or nation, taken as representing the whole: a dam built by the government. 5. (in some parliamentary systems, as that of the United Kingdom) a. the particular group of persons forming the cabinet at any given time: The Prime Minister has formed a new government. b. the parliament along with the cabinet: The government has fallen. IV. con·sti·tu·tion ? ? [kon-sti-too-shuhn, -tyoo-] Show IPA noun 1. he way in which a thing is composed or made up; makeup; composition: the chemical constitution of the cleanser. 2. the physical character of the body as to strength, health, etc. : He has a strong constitution. 3. Medicine/Medical, Psychology . the aggregate of a person’s physical and psychological characteristics. 4. the act or process of constituting; establishment. 5. the state of being constituted; formation. V. A good written constitution must have the following characteristics: 1. ) Broad A constitution must be broad in its scope because it utlines the organization of the government for the whole state. A statement of provisions and functions of the government, and of the relations between the governing body and the governed, requires a comprehensive document. 2. ) Brief A constitution must be brief because it is not the place in which the details of organization should be set forth. Some constitutions have been marred by the inclusion of pure regulation. 3. ) Definite The constitution must be definite. In a statement of principles of underlying the essential nature of a state any vagueness hich may lead to opposing interpretations of essential features may cause incalculable harm. Civil war and the disruption of the state may conceivably follow from ambiguous expressions in a constitution. VI. Different types of constitutions Introduction There is no doubt that each society has political activity that connects with its social, economic, geographic and political conditions, as well as constitutional studies come at the top of the legal studies due to the subject of the constitutional law connects directly with life and cares of all citizens in the state, rulers or subjects.
If the constitutional law cares with the rulers from one corner, but it determines the general aspect of authorities and regime of the governing in the state and draws the limits for specification to each authority and its relations with others. Whatever point of view, there is no dispute on importance of the constitutional law because it cares with the rulers and subjects and upgrades to the top place. The constitution is a set of the legal rules organize entity of the state and human society that exists among definite geographic space regarding with constitution and legal rules are in permanent and continues movement.
Customary Constitutions And Written Constitutions It’s known that the rules regarding with any political system of any state, it will be two ways, either resulting from customary without writing out any formal texts, in this case it’s said there is customary constitution. The second case it may be wrote down in formal document that is made to be known at the all (Dr. Sabri, Said). So that there two types that are customary constitutions and written constitutions. Customary Constitution The customary is considered the oldest formal resources of the legal rule.
It remained the sole source of the constitutional rules in the world till 18th century. It is theoretic and needed source, whereas gives binding force to the legal rule in the performance. (Dr. Abu Steet, A). English constitution is the clearest example for such type of the constitutional laws because the constitutional laws were formed by the customary in Britain that often represents still constitutional rules. Customary ruels include other written constitutional rules embody in the “the Greatest Era” of year 1215 A.
D. “Magna Carta and Bill & Rights” of year 1689, and Parliament Act in 1911. Although such constitutional documents vary in Britain, it is not sufficient for political regime in the state that determined by customary rules in general. (Bashir, M. Ibid, page 42). The cause may be that England takes the customary constitution, this is referred to nature of the English people itself who intends to develop its rules and laws quietly without violent, as well as constitutional history began in England early.
Moreover, the causes that called most of the countries to take with written constituions that were not available in English regime. (Al Sha’r, R. ). The importance of customary rules in the English constitution appears in survey the field that prevailed by it. Because of the English constitution is a set of the systems are often emerged in permanent customaries as long as new necessities made. If the customary rules took great importance in establishing of the constitutional laws in non written constitutions of the countries.
Such rules and laws are emerged as a result of following up a public authority in the definite country relating with habit of the any target of the constitutional law without any contrary of the other authorities till it remains in the minds of the people had to respect such rules, consequently it adds binding feature. Written Constitutions The first written constitutions were English colonies constitutions in the North America after its freedom in 1776, USA Constitution in 1787 that still remains.
Since written constitutions appeared, the idea of constitution liberty prevailed to be a tool for freedom whereas it remains with specific right for the citizen. The idea of written constitution transferred from America to France till it made the first written constitution on 3 September 1791, then coveyed into the remaining European countries. After that range of the written constitution expanded in First World War as well as expanded into the Arabian countries. Consequently, the written constitution acquired political sense because it connects closely with definite matter of the government.
According to that written constitutions add on the constitutions rules emphasizing and determining. (Dr. Bashir, M). Flexible And Rigid Constitutions Explainers indicated that flexible constitution that is can be amended by the authorities and with procedures may need for the ordinary laws. When there is flexible constitution such England Constitution, this means that there is no any constitution from the form aspect because there is no any conditions vary between the constitution amendments and ordinary legislation amendment, so that establishing authority mixes with legislative authority.
As per the rigid constitution, it can’t be amended but by authorities and different procedures than such methods that amend the ordinary laws. Whereas as amendment of the rigid constitution vary here than method of the flexible constitution amendment. On the second hand, the rigid constitution has firmness feature as a result of the special procedures that are shall be regarded at amendment of its items. As per the flexible constitution doesn’t stipulate definite procedure that should be regarded to amend. Bashir, Al Shafei Mohammed). This doesn’t mean that the constitution can’t be touched totally and it can’t ever amended, but it means making and amendment it. In short, I can sum that the Standard can be taken for the difference between the flexible and rigid constitutions in as difficulty and complexity in amendment of the rigid constitution, if this difficulty increases, it will be rigid constitution, while this difficulty decreases, it will be half rigid or half flexible. Constitutional Convention
It may appear along with written constitution practical needs in which written constitutional rules doesn’t complicate; in this case constitutional convention appears along with constitutional flexible rules officially. This convention may interpret or complete deficit in the constitution, but some says that the constitutional convention may be amended as constitutional item. The constitutional convention emerges along with written constitution and it consists with physical and spiritual article, i. e. with following up definite custom then is followed till to be binding matter.
Such customs are emerged by political life in the country to exist to the written constitution as complementary or amended rules to some its items. Accordingly, the constitutional convention is either interpretation or complementary, or amended to some items of the constitution. In the interpretation custom, the customs performs with interpreter for ambiguity of the constitutional text. To raise this role, it’s supposed there is ambiguity constitutional text, as well as it shows way of application of the texts and conditions.
Among examples of the interpreter custom what is made in accordance with French Constitution 1875. As per complementary custom, it overcomes interpreter custom role to play affected role along with written text, it represents in establishing new decision. As shown from its name, complementary custom may emerge to handle deficit problem of the written constitutional text because it supposes that the constitution neglects specific matter. In short that complementary constitution is unlike interpreter custom because it doesn’t relay on constitution item, and also it establish new constitutional rule.
Among examples is French constitution 1875 provided that election shall be the ballot, and the custom completed this item whereas the election was directly and one degree. (Abu Al Magd, Ahmed Kamal). As per amended custom, that works to amend the constitutional text, it doesn’t limited to its ambiguity as interpreter custom or complete what is required of deficit as complete custom, but it aims at amendment of constitutional text and abrogate it provision and add new provision or cancel the standing text. Legal Value Of The Constitutional Convention
The jurists vary in determine of the legal value of the constitutional convention. Some of them say that its value may be over the constitutional texts, equals to be established in accordance flexible or rigid constitution. But others say that interpreter constitution convention takes degree of the written constitutional text that is emerged beside it. As types of the other constitutional custom takes degree of ordinary law. Reference of this difference is that interpreter constitutional convention doesn’t establish new constitutional rule other than types. (Hashish, A. H.
Dar-al-Nahda Al-‘Arabia). Conclusion In conclusion, I can confirm that there is no any state can live without law and there is not law without sovereignty. So that sovereignty of the law represents in our belief distinctive standard of the state then others of human communities. Sovereignty of the law is not slogans but it is fact shall be committed and obligated till the people find it before them in their daily life. There is no doubt that constitutional law is the first laws. Emphasizing that protection of the constitution from frivolity is to protect of entity of the state.
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