Infrastructure such as roads and electricity Is only completed In some areas. What’s a “growth pole”? An urban center targeted for development of key economic and social infrastructure to promote regional economic development ( roads, electric grids, schools, markets, and medical facilities) Brazil Chapters 13 & 15 What are the historical, economic, and cultural factors which make Brazier’s Atlantic coastal plain region different from the rest of modern-day Brazil? From where and why did Brazil move its capital to Brasilia in the sass? Strategic reasons: ROI De Jeanine is on the coastline and they wanted to move the capital inland n case of an Invasion. It Is much easier to defend a capital Inland because you have more time to prepare versus a capital that Is on the shore. – to Develop the heart of Brazil. Until the construction of Brasilia, there wasn’t anything there. The central region of Brazil was totally undeveloped as the population lived mostly along the coastline. They figure that if they moved the capital inland, people would move there and develop that area.
They were proved right! Fact shaped the social & economic geography of the region? “backwoods” lots of drought, rolling hills, mountainous Be able to locate the areas of Brazil in which populations are either mostly European or African (in terms of origins) the majority European population is in the far south Brazier’s recent foreign policy has been to promote a “polytechnic world” – what does that mean? IA world n which one or two countries cannot dominate global affairs (as was the case during the Cold War). What is the nature of U.
S-Brazil relations? Latin American Socio-Economic Development Chapter 16 What’s the difference between Rosters “Stages of Economic Development” and the Dependency Theory proposed by Latin American economists? Roosts: Says that they are poor because they are not fully integrated into the global economy. Dependency theory: Argues that countries are poor because of how they were integrated into the world economy. Are there any geographic patterns to development in Latin America? If so, what are they? What might be the explanations for these patterns?
What’s the difference (in terms of advantages & weaknesses) between the “import- substitution” model of economic development and the “export-led growth” model? [also discussed in Chapter 18] Import-substitution: a country should attempt to develop as much of its industrial opacity as possible internally, without depending on foreign imports +: creates Jobs, protectionism -: protectionism leads to dynamic inefficiency; domestic producers have no incentive from foreign competitors to reduce costs or improve products; impedes growth through poor allocation of resources; effect on exchange rates harms exports.
Export-led growth: a trade and economic policy aiming to speed up the industrialization process of a country by exporting goods for which the nation has a comparative advantage -: less economic diversification; subsidies for specific industries runs a risk of encouraging the wrong industries What are “the Washington Consensus” and “structural adjustment plans” and how are they related? A set of free market economic ideas, supported by economists and international organizations, like the MIFF, the World Bank, the EX. and the US; advocates free trade, floating exchange rates, free markets and macroeconomic stability.
What is meant by internal regional differentiation (in terms of development)? In particular country are greater than between countries; Mexico and Brazil The Pampas (& Southern Cone) Chapter 17 Where are the Pampas? (be able to locate) Why is Buenos Aries often referred to as the “Paris of South America”? It’s architecture is influenced by European architecture and rich European heritage In which ways is urban primacy evident in the Southern Cone (Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, Uruguay)?
Argentina: Buenos Aries Chile: Santiago Paraguay: Asuncion Uruguay: Montevideo Which technological advancements changed the agricultural economy of the pampas and Argentina in general? What are the physical and human geography factors behind the robust wine industries in Chile and Argentina? Latin America and the Global Economy Chapter 18 What are some of the problems associated with dependency on a few primary commodity exports? How does Chile’s physical geography & location provide it comparative advantage in the export of agricultural products?
Many countries in South America are dependent on commodities and looking toward “economic diversification. ” In which ways can “diversification” be understood? Numerous vs.. FETA What is going on here in the competition between these two visions of free trade in the Americas? What is the role of China in the Latin American economic boom of the sass? How does Latin America’s growing middle class further integrate the region into the global economy? The Amazon Basin is what type of physical feature? Which 5 countries have significant land area in the basin?
What are some reasons why there is global interest in protecting the Amazon rainforest’s? What are the main drivers of deforestation in the Amazon Basin? What were some of the resource booms of the past which affected natural and human systems in the Amazon? What have been the primary objectives of Brazilian government projects in the Amazon region (e. G. March to the West”, growth poles, road building)? Latin American Diaspora – Chapter 20 What are terms used to describe the Latin American Diaspora in the U. S.? How have these terms caused confusion?
Hipic- most widely used in the eastern US states; Latino- most widely used in the West and Midwest of the US Chicane- a term used by Mexican political activists; lots of Aztec and messiest pride associated with this term Hipic- used by the Spanish speaking natives of the Upper ROI Grandee Valley in New Mexico and Colorado. Which areas in the U. S. Are home to large Latin American populations – and why? Typically the southwestern US is home to large Mexican populations, Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, California, New York, Florida, Illinois have the largest Hipic population stretching from Texas to California.
They settled in the areas that once used to be a part of Mexico. Mexican workers and immigrants also reached the Midwest in small numbers. Areas with Jobs in agriculture, manufacturing, construction work To which other countries have Latin Americans tended to migrate – and why? Spain, Italy ,UK, Germany, Portugal From Student Presentations Cooling Christian’s presentation – who were the Sandiness and why did the U. S oppose them? Sandiness: a social democratic political party in Nicaragua; the U.
S opposed them because they were afraid that they were going to become a Cuban- style communist government allied and Reagan wanted to prevent the spread of Eric Dodson presentation – What were the San Andrea Accords and what did they promise and to whom? San Andrea Accords: Allowed indigenous people to have the right to self-determination of an autonomous government, full access to Justice, representation in politics, increased employment opportunities, and the promotion of culture and education. Mike Kennedy’s presentation – Why does the Quiches language struggle for status & domain even in countries such as Bolivia and Peru?
The Quiches language has to compete with Spanish language which is seen as a vehicle for upward social mobility. Rural to urban migration has also caused many to stop speaking the language Low prestige of the language and stigma surrounding Quiches also prevents people from speaking the language The domain of the language has been reduced to rural Andean villages and the homes of native speakers, there are few places in public and urban settings where the language is spoken Alice Millard – Why/How might the U. S. Trade embargo on Cuba been seen as a positive situation? It has forced Cuba to become self-reliant and invest in their own healthcare and pharmaceutical industries since it was not allowed to but American medical equipment or use American drug patents. – It also opened up more markets for Cuba to sell its cash crops to since American refused to import their goods. Ron Trumann – What is the Panatela and why is it important? One of the most immense and biologically rich environments on the planet Wetlands provide countless economic, ecological, cultural, recreational and aesthetic values
Concentrated and diverse flora and fauna Cumulative (from Exams 1 & 2) Why is Latin America considered a region? Which countries in Middle & South America are often excluded from the region and why? To what do the terms messiest and mulatto refer? Where were the two main Meridian cultural hearths? What is a cultural hearth? How did the Incas (as well as modern-day Andean peoples) utilize latitudinal conation in food production? What were/are the impacts of the Columbian Exchange? What basic patterns (physical and social) did the Law of the Indies establish in terms f city planning in colonial Spanish America?
What was the one fundamental difference between western Europeans and indigenous Americans in their understandings of land and its value? In which ways are haciendas and plantations distinct forms of latitudinal? What are masqueraders and what explains their geographical distribution? masqueraders are manufacturing plants that are typically located near the US-Mexico border. Their close proximity to the border helps reduce transportation cost to send the finished products to the US, which is their biggest consumer. What tectonic process has/is creating the Andes?
What cultural and economic role does coca have in the Andean region, especially Bolivia? Why did population projections for Latin America made in the sass end up incorrect? They didn’t take into account the changes in healthcare and the economy. Birth control was introduced to the population which helped to reduce births and population. What makes an Meridian a “decent” or “reasonable” person (gent decent or gent De razz¶n) in the minds of many Latin Americans? The economies of Central American countries traditionally have been dependent on …? What is CAFTAN and how has it changed Central American economies?