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1)Zara has been under a lot of scrutiny over the past several years because of some of the apparel that company has chosen to release. On top of that, factory workers of the company have been complaining of inhumane workplaces. The company has a history of scandal in various departments including copyright and ethical.
Based on what I have read and researched, Zara is not an ethical company. They steal clothing ideas from people, discriminate against people based on their values and beliefs, create unsafe workplace environment in their factories, and produce offensive clothing. In September 2007, the company was under fire because they allowed their stores around the country to sell a $78 hand bag with four green swastikas on the bag. This is unethical because that symbol represents a very dark time for many people around the world and also strikes fear into other because of its history. Another way the company is unethical is the conditions they make the factory workers work in. In August 2011, a raid was conducted on a sweatshop in Sao Paulo where they found immigrants working in cramped and unsanitary conditions for long hours; one worker was fourteen years old. This is unethical because employers are supposed to provide employees with safe work environment; if they are cramped into a space that can be a fire hazard. Also, depending on what country or area you are in, it is illegal for a fourteen year old to work in a sweatshop. Zara also discriminated against their only attorney in the U.S. and Canada region. Zara is Spanish, Christian, Straight company. Zara’s former attorney, Ian Jack Miller, believes he was fired because he is Jewish, American, and gay; Ian filled a $40 million suit against the company the was taken to the New York City Supreme Court. He also received hateful emails of graphic pornography and racism, which he used as evidence in the suit. Their have been even more incidents that are more recent that have affected the business.
Based on my research I believe that business ethics do matter because it can effect the businesses growth and productivity. Recently, people have been boycotting Zara because it seems that there is some kind of ethical problem that occurs in the company every year. A reason for this may be because the company is not aware of certain global ethics. Since the company is based out of Spain, there could be certain cultural differences that makes them think it is okay to manufacture and sell certain apparel; whereas it might not be okay to sell that apparel in the United Stated because of antisemitism or other reasons. Also, the company has had to callback many pieces of apparel because of its offensive look or wording on the apparel. Calling back apparel is more money the company has to spend that they are not getting any profit from. On top of that, all the apparel that was called back is now an expense to the Zara that they do not get any revenue from. In order for the company to get that money back, an option would be to let go of a few employees or even close several stores, prohibiting the company from growing.

2)Is Apple an ethical company?
              Apple is the most well-known company for its brilliant design and quality of technology products such as iPhones, iMacs, etc. Its business grew from such innovation, superior design, and great marketing. As a business company, many consumers don’t necessarily care for or go into how the business seems to operate for the sake of time and just receiving the product that they desire. Based on the case study on Apple from the book and upon further research, I believe that Apple is represented as an ethical company. Apple gravitates towards ethical business practices to be the most important factor in a company, although the company itself falls into some unethical matters. Apple is associated with issues pertaining to the secrecy of supply chain and manufacturing as well as using Irish subsidiaries as loopholes to avoid some taxes. However, behind these activities Apple is liable for, the public views the company as ethical from a consumer perspective.
 Furthermore, Apple contributes to unethical practices when it comes to dealing with the manufacturing and supply chain, along with tax avoidances. Apple is not a company who manufactures most of its products domestically, as for many of the products that are being sold in the U.S., but most of the sourcing and production are executed overseas in horrible conditions that put workers and the environment at risk. For example, Apple products’ major component consists of tin, sourced from Indonesia, where children are constantly working to dig in and out of mines for that tin, in which landslides are capable of burying them alive. Several workers in China’s “electronics sweatshop” according to The Conversation also suffer from poor working conditions, low pay, and environmental hazards. In fact, the suicides of workers entail Apple to partially viewing the problem but neglecting to fix it. Additionally, Apple reveals to be finding loopholes around Irish subsidiaries in turn of avoiding taxes of up to a billion dollars. On the other hand, this provides Apple with offshore profits in cash each year. It is apparent that Apple’s involvement in sweatshops and tax avoidances contribute to Apple’s unethical side of the company.  
Overall, big companies here and there seem to strive for reasonable ethics that pleases most customers when delivering the best products. However, behind the process of creating a sustainable business, there are practices that are admittedly unethical and seem complicated to deal with. Apple is seen as a well-rounded ethical company, when in comparison to companies such as Sprint, Uber, Comcast, etc. Generally speaking, I think that business ethics certainly matter in the long-term as they will help create a better environment for future ideas. Moreover, with Apple’s competitive advantage in the business and its increasingly high demand in products, Apple holds a strong stance in the business industry, apart from some of their unethical practices that are slowly improving. 

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