Research Question and Literature Review

In RA 2, you will finalize the research question on a human services topic that you selected earlier in the course and conduct a literature review to better understand the problem being presented through the research question.
In this assignment, you will get an opportunity to practice many different concepts and skills that you have covered throughout this course.
Using what you have learned about research questions, along with the feedback you received in M4 Assignment 2, present your finalized research question on a topic in the field of human services. Your question should clearly depict the variables being examined and the relationship between these variables.
Gather, analyze, and critique scholarly literature and develop a literature review to address your research question. Use the list of resources that you finalized in M4 Assignment 2, in addition to any other articles that you found since Module 4.
Your literature review must be based on:

Credible research sources
A minimum of one quantitative and one qualitative research study
One or two seminal or foundational sources
At least five peer-reviewed journals and two websites
Current sources from within the past five years (with the exception of the seminal or foundational source mentioned above)

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In addition, your literature review must:

Synthesize the research and provide a summary of how the selected literature helps support the research question.
Discuss common themes found in the literature related to the topic.
Compare and contrast the typical research methodologies found in the literature you reviewed—qualitative, qualitative, and mixed-methods.
Annotated Bibliography and question

What are the effects of poverty and inequality in different countries?

HS6022 Research and Writing in Human Services
Annotated Bibliography
Ravallion, M. (2017). Poverty comparisons. Routledge.
The book highlights significant areas affected by poverty across the globe. Furthermore, it provides a detailed analysis of poverty levels and the factors that contribute to the rise of poverty among these nations. The article touches on vital economic aspects and concepts that affect the welfare of the countries. In modern cuisine, the source tries to explore the reasons behind the large gap between the rich and the poor and economic strategies that can be implemented to mitigate the problem. Also, the source identifies different roles of the government and areas they have meticulously sensitized so that they can promote the well-being of the citizens and alleviate poverty. Ravallion (2017) also explores the distribution of resources, taxation, and income distribution and tries to assess if these factors have increased inequality among the nationals and who genuinely benefits from the economy. Finally, the article identifies counties that are struggling to fight poverty and inequality especially in sub-Saharan Africa where poverty is chronic and weak governance of these states is common. To relieve the problem, the source explains several measures and policies that may be of help to these countries and help fight the problem that lags them behind.
Smeeding, T. M. (2017). Cross-national comparisons of inequality and poverty position. In Economic inequality and poverty: international perspectives (pp. 53-73). Routledge.
The source provides deep insight into the economic factors that create a difference in the levels of poverty and inequality among nations. Thus, the article offers an analysis of income distribution, allocation of resources, education levels, and technological innovations and how they have affected the economic growth and development of nations. By so doing, the article covers extensive research on practical issues in the economy such as equitable distribution of resources in the growing population and tries to evaluate the success and failure of the matter in different states across the globe. Even more, the source explains the position of various groups in the economy such as the elderly, children, and the middle-aged and the role that they play in promoting the welfare of the country. More so, the content of the source covers extensively the determinants of policymaking in the economy that alleviate the problem of poverty and inequality. Smeeding (2017) focuses on favorable policies such as avoiding tax distortions that nations can adapt to promote economic growth and increase their aggregate demand for goods and services in their economy. Primarily, Smeeding (2017) tries as much as possible to tackle practical everyday issues that will promote the well-being of the citizens and reduce these problems that slow down progress and development among nations.
Fosu, A. K. (2015). Growth, inequality and poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa: recent progress in a global context. Oxford Development Studies, 43(1), 44-59.
Fosu (2015) examines the reduced economic growth and developments and increased levels of disease, poverty, and inequality in Sub-Saharan Africa. Notably, the source identifies the reasons behind the slow progress in these countries. Fosu draws a sharp focus in the analyzing the economies of these countries and understanding that poor governance, corruption, war, and ethnicity are among the factors that have significantly affected these countries and reduced their performance in the global context. The book addresses these issues and tries to provide measures that will help these countries out of the problem. Notably, these countries are encouraged to promote social cohesion and adapt capitalist policies that will help them out of the poverty and inequality trap. According to Fosu, it is essential that these countries foster equitable distribution of income among nationals and proper taxation strategies. This is because Fosu affirms that the leading cause of poverty among the (SSA) is income growth. The source confirms that this widens the gap between the rich and the poor since corruption and misallocation of resources is common in these nations. By so doing, some citizens end up living in poor conditions while others develop and progress in their lives. The article explains that’s this has hindered the efficiency inequality and income improvements in reducing poverty levels among the (SSA) nations.
Royce, E. (2018). Poverty and power: The problem of structural inequality. Rowman & Littlefield.
The article brings out the aspect of power and economic development and growth among countries. Notably, Royce (2018) explains that political power has a direct relationship with the level of growth of the economy. The source identifies those countries with good political governance are likely to grow and develop faster in their activities. According to Royce 2018, power affects the distribution and allocation of resources in the economy. As a result, the article explores that with good political stability and governance a country can benefit by ensuring that all its regions are well served by the limited resources in the country which will promote economic growth and development. The source explains that good governance and stability will establish favorable policies and measures that will enhance economic well-being. Contrary to this, Royce (2018) sheds light on poor governance, and political stability will lead to poverty and biases of regions. The article explains that this will make some parts of the nation better off compared to other areas which will be a driver of poverty and inequality in the economy. Thus, the source confirms that the country will slow down on its economic and production activities since certain parts of the economy will not be efficient and Pareto optimality will not be achieved in the marketplace for adequate growth and development to occur in the economy.
Alvaredo, F., & Gasparini, L. (2015). Recent trends in inequality and poverty in developing countries. In Handbook of income distribution (Vol. 2, pp. 697-805). Elsevier.
The article provides a clear view of the levels of inequality and poverty in developing countries. Mainly, Alvaredo & Gasparini (2015) analyzes the consumption trends and behaviors of individuals and how they affect economic growth and development. Poverty and inequality as explained by this source can be depicted from several parts of the economy by observing these patterns in consumption behavior. Notably, the article examines that inequities in income distribution could be a factor that affects economic growth and broadens the gap between the rich and the poor in developing countries’ economies. According to Alvaredo & Gasparini, taxation and inequitable distribution of income have primarily affected the purchasing power of consumers, and this is a factor that has produced adverse outcome on consumption behavior of individuals in a country. The source identifies that developing nations have to stress on educating their citizens so that they can equip them with skills that will help them have a positive impact on the workforce in the country. These countries as confirmed by Alvaredo & Gasparini have to focus on the industrial sector instead of the agricultural sector for them to create jobs for their nationals and prevent the problem of poverty and inequality in the country. 
Krueger, A. B. (2018). Inequality, too much of a good thing. In The Inequality Reader (pp. 25-33). Routledge.
The context of this article gives a global perspective of inequality and its contribution to poverty and slow economies across the globe. In this source, Krueger (2018) explores factors that contribute to inequality and the positive and negative effects of inequality. On the positive side, the source explains that individuals become more creative and innovative. Furthermore, Krueger (2018) suggests that nationals are motivated to work hard and invest more in the economy. The article highlights that inequalities have adverse effects such as racial discrimination from alterations in rewards in the economy which affect the well-being of the country since the practice results to unfair allocation of resources in these nations. Moreover, Krueger (2018) elaborates that income inequalities are a significant reason that causes poverty in countries. This is because the source explains that those in power continually use their political ability to influence economic decisions and favor and pursue their political ambitions which creates income inequities and poverty in parts of the country. By so doing, Krueger (2018) demonstrates that poverty and inequality cause negative externality in the economy which affects the aggregate demand and the overall growth and development of the nation.
The scholarly website provides a detailed review of the causes of poverty and inequalities in different countries especially in Sub-Saharan Africa and India. It highlights major factors that contribute to disparities and poverty and empirical analysis of these factors. Notably, it focuses on the study of trends in inequities in income distribution and provides sufficient evidence from data sources of these patterns and how they can be mitigated in the developing countries. The source shows the different problems that the developing world faces in attaining consistency and developing in the contemporary world. It also makes a detailed comparison between nations and the measurement of poverty and inequalities in these countries. Finally, it studies the progress and changes in poverty and income inequalities in different states across the continent.
The scholarly website draws attention to the reduction of poverty by improving rural conditions and reducing migration to the urban areas. This source provides a productive approach of making use of available resources in society to create local jobs and enhance skills that will ensure people can make a living for themselves and sustain their everyday life. As explained by this source, the inclusion of members of the society is essential in propelling economic development since the allocation of resources will be fair and reduce inequalities in income distribution. Furthermore, the rapid population growth is likely to cause unemployment and poor living standards which will affect the GDP and GNP of the economy and slows down economic growth and development.  The source provides fundamental measures that will eradicate poverty and inequalities in the economy such as poverty education and support of agricultural activities that will create jobs for the local communities and promote the economic welfare of the nation.

Causes of poverty and inequality

The above website denotes vital aspects that result in poverty and inequality in a nation. The site explores the various reasons that lead to poverty and inequality and how these reasons can be controlled in the global context. The research examines several features that result in inequality and poverty such as political power, gender, low levels of education and skills, ethnicity, and unemployment. The source evaluates these areas and provides a clear view on how they result in poverty and inequality and measures that can be put in place to mitigate the problems in developed and developing nations. Notably, the website provides a comparative analysis and analyzes their levels of poverty and inequality and how they affect economic growth.
The scholarly site decomposes measures that countries can use to fight and prevent the aftermath of poverty and inequality. According to the source, such preventive measures in the economy include foreign aid which offer short term assistance to nations and help them mitigate poverty and inequality and enhance sustainable growth and development in the world. The source provides effective policies and measures that help prevent past mistakes and integrate vital aspects that policy instruments which help these countries achieve their strategic plan and objectives of fighting poverty and inequality. Moreover, the website explores the problems of population growth, corruption, poor governance, and unequal distribution of resources and how foreign aid can help prevent these shortfalls and eventually eradicate poverty and inequality in different nations. Finally, it supports that for sustainable growth and development, countries should shift to promote their industrial sector which will create jobs and help eliminate poverty and inequality. The source explains that this can be made possible through foreign aid to these countries.


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