Posted: June 4th, 2021
Choose a health topic related to primary prevention, secondary prevention, or tertiary care. Explain why this is an important topic of discussion based on your personal belief, and based on valid research. Paper should be 1. 5 – 2 pages. APA format must be followed. Detailed assignment information will be provided. Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer in women and the 2nd most leading cause of their death. It is estimated that 1 in 8 women will be diagnosed with breast cancer in their life time and it will claim as many as 40,000 lives in the US only. ( http://www. nationalbreastcancer. rg/breast-cancer-facts) Primary prevention can play a key role in substantially reducing the chances of developing breast cancer Early detection through screening can make treatment process easier and less extensive. Primary prevention is all about reducing the risk factors that may enhance one’s chjances of getting breasts cancer specially if there is a history of breast cancer in the family. Long term heavy smoking and alcohol consumtion can increase the chances of developing breast cancer. (http://www. cancer. org/acs/groups/content/@epidemiologysurveilance/documents/document/acspc-030975. df American cancer society) “Prevention is the best cure” is a very wise proverb. Necessary precautions can prevent major health problems altogether. The major focus of primary prevention is to prevent a diseases before it occurs. One of doing so is by controlling the risk factors in healthy people that may lead to the disease. There are several different approaches such as clinical prevention which includes interactions with a health proifessional, community based efforts such as awareness programs, laws and plocies etfc. , and work place health programs that promote healthy life style etc.
Family history of breast cancer can almost double the risk of getting breast cancer which makes the Its important to cultivate a healthy life style to avoid this problem altogether and promote healthy habits and activities than can reduce the chances significantly. Since breast cancer prevention are risk based Determining the risk factor is the first step in designing a prevention plan. Chemoprevention, tamoxifen although can help reduce the risk factors by as much as half but they don’t come without their own risk are not widely practiced.
Therefore, primary prevention which is now evolving itself to include cancer screening, imaging, pathalogial findings and level od suspicion etc along with computer programs and special algorithms can help reduce the chances and early detection. The trends show that breast cancer has been on the rise and many people don’t have access to treatment and affordability is another factor. Between 1975 to 1990 it increases and then dcresed byh 2. 34 percent between 1990 and 2002. Black women have a higher percentage of mortality compared with the rest of the races in the US.
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There are many factors that determine the risk of getting cancer. In female the risk increases with age which can be coped with adjusting to a new life style and observing high precaution. Family history (first or second degree of relation) can increase the risk higher and if more than one family member had cancer it would increase the risk even further that’s why education of such people right from the first case is very important. Girls from young age should be nurtured in a way to adopt a healthy life style and a life style that decreases the chances of getting breast cancer.
Different levels of Reproductive Hormones that change with a woman’s age andfor some other reasons such as pregnancy and nulliparity etc also play a role in determining the risk factors. Mind benign breast malfunction can also increase the chances of having breast cancer in later stages of a woman/s life. Irradiation at early age also increases risks of getting breast cancer. Prevention through lifestyle. Diet and nutritions is controversial but fat consumtion has been associated with breast cancer.
Different studies have shown conflicting results and therefore this area is open for more research. Obesity, however, has been clearly associated with raising the risk factor just like smoking and long term alcohol consumtion does too. Primary prevention. Life style modification studies have yielded different and controversial results. However, disregarding the impact od life syle change, it can lead to better health over all as well reduce the over all risk factor. This may include physical activity, healthy weight, avoiding smoking and limiting alcohol consumption.
Ec. Women with high risk of cancer due to genetic mutation may consider non Some primary prevention measures such as prophylactic oophorectomy in young women(35 and under) has shown to reduce the breast cancer by 60 percent but this surgery comes with many unpleasant symptoms. Such as mood changes, night sweats and hot flashes etc. Prophylactic mastectomy which is the removal of both or one breast is also a primary prevention techniques but its drawbacks may outweigh its benefits. Therefor this practice is limited to women with a very high risk of breast cancer.
Chemoprevention techniques such as tamoxifen and raloxifene can reduce the risk to one half. But this form of prentive techniques such as tamoxifen shows an increased risk of endometrial cancer in women over the age of 500 (PRIMARY PREVENTION OF BREAST CANCER, SCREENING FOR EARLY DETECTION OF BREAST CANCER, AND DIAGNOSTIC EVALUATION OF CLINICAL AND MAMMOGRAPHIC BREAST ABNORMALITIES Therese B. Bevers) Although most women may not deveop cancer in their life time but prevention techniques and precautions and habits can ensure early detection. Primary prevention saves time, costs related to the treatment, discomfort and pain.
CLINICAL REVIEW Women at High Risk for Breast Cancer—What the Primary Care Provider Needs to Know Nelia Afonso, MD Primary prevention would encompass not only a healthy life style which includes measures to avoid exposure to carcinogen exposure and health promoting activieties and habits . the focus is block the cancer from eve ndeveloping or delay its development to malignancy. And for people who have a high risk of cancer (due to genetic mutation etc ), it includes administration of chemopreventive agents or surgeries that require removal of some body parts. ( http://www. ns. org/ClinicalResources/BreastCancer/Prevention/Types) Environmental factors exposure to insecticides etc can increase the chances of developing cancer. ( http://www. cancer. gov/cancertopics/pdq/prevention/breast/HealthProfessional/page2) http://www. cancer. org/acs/groups/content/@epidemiologysurveilance/documents/document/acspc-030975. pdf self examination. Periodic mammography 40 percent cases of cancer can be avoided just by making lifestyle changes. (http://www. kingsfund. org. uk/projects/gp-commissioning/ten-priorities-for-commissioners/primary-prevention)
Regular primary care can reduce mortality rate over a period of just 5 years. (http://sphhs. gwu. edu/departments/healthpolicy/dhp_publications/pub_uploads/dhpPublication_3BBD241A-5056-9D20-3DC72347BA069B17. pdf) having a primary care physician decreases the likelihood of getting diseases and increases the effectiveness and appropriateness of care. Having one particular person as a primary health provider means fewer prescriptions and fewer tests more and decrease of emergency care. Primary health care can reduce expenses. Hospitalization and down time can be avoided. Interventions such as smoking
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