Philippine History

Before the so-called invaders of Philippines came here, we proudly say that we are civilized then and stood up by ourselves even without the help of others. Fossils, bones and jars were found from the different parts of the country as a sign of life many years ago. The oldest of which was retrieved in a cave named Kuweba ng Tabon, Palawan. It was said that they lived 22,000 years ago. It stated in the history of the Philippines that the first group of men who came here was the Negritos. They are those who have dark complexion, small, and has curly hair.
Their other names were Aetas, Itas, Baluga and many more. It was believed that they lived in caves and in the mountains. After the Negritos were the Indones. They are those who have a white complexion, tall, and tough bodies. To compare the two, the Indones are smart looking people. The last group was the Malays. They were the one having the right complexion, height and characteristics. They were the one who mostly dominated the archipelago. Being civilized persons, they were able to live according to their skills and unbelievable ability to maintain their spirit to live.
These people lived peacefully. The neighbor countries such as the China started to trade with the people here. They traded textiles, jars, animals and other tradable materials. It was not easy for the Spaniards to conquer and build a government in the Philippines because the native Filipinos fought for their rights, freedom, and dignity. The first Europeans to arrive were the Spanish led by Ferndinand Magellan {Fernao de Magalhaes (Portugese) Fernando de Magallanes (Spanish)}. He claimed the islands for Spain on March 16, 1521.

When he came to Limasawa on March 18, 1521, he united with Raha Kulambu and Raha Siagu of Butuun who are brothers. There, the first mass was celebrated and stationed a cross on top of the mountain. He baptized the place as Kapuluan ni San Larazo. But his vanquishing ended when he tried to conquer Mactan where a brave leader fought him to death named Lapu-Lapu. Miguel Lopez de Legazpi made the first permanent Spanish settlement on Cebu in 1565. In 1571, the islands were renamed in honor of King Philip II. He named the island as Felipinas and the capital was moved to Manila.
The name was later changed into Philippines. A governor-general responsible to the viceroy of Mexico headed the colonial administration, but the parish priest was often the only visible symbol of Spanish authority in rural areas, and religious orders controlled education and many great estates. The Spanish came into conflict with the expanding Muslim population and eventually pushed them back to the southern islands, although neither Spain nor the United States at a later date was ever able to subjugate the Muslims completely.
The Spanish occupation was inseparably linked with the missionary work of the Roman Catholic church. Trade in Chinese luxury items, gathered in Manila and sold in Acapulco in exchange for silver, was the economic foundation of the colony until the 19th century, when the independence of Spain’s New World colonies forced a shift to the cash-crop economy that persists to this day. In the 1880s a nationalistic movement developed, strongly influenced by the writings of Jose Rizal (1861-96). He spurred Filipino demands for reform.
Rizal’s execution made him a martyr and the country’s national hero and sparked an unsuccessful revolution led by Emilio AGUINALDO. On June 12, 1898, after the outbreak of the Spanish-American War, Aguinaldo declared the Philippines independent in the mistaken belief that the United States supported his struggle. Instead, Spain ceded the Philippines to the United States. In 1899 until his capture in 1901 Aguinaldo led a war against his country’s new colonial rulers.
Although U. S. business interests applauded the seizure of the Philippines, the U. S. government declared that it would prepare the islands for independence. In 1935 the Philippines became a self-governing commonwealth under President Manuel Luis Quezon, but World War II delayed full independence. Japan attacked the Philippines on Dec. 8, 1941, defeating U. S. and Filipino forces at Bataan and Corregidor in 1942. The struggle against Japan, culminating in Gen. Douglas MacArthur’s return in 1944, came to symbolize U. S. -Philippine solidarity. On July 4, 1946, the Philippines gained full independence with Manuel Roxas y Acuna as president.
After World War II, the economic and social infrastructure of the Philippines was a shambles. Inadequate land distribution and unequal taxation fed the Hukbalahap (Huk) guerilla revolt against the government, which was defused in the early 1950s by a resettlement and amnesty program devised during the presidency of Elpidio Quirino by Ramon Magsaysay, who became president in 1953. Ferdinand Marcos became the first president to win (1969) a second term after defeating President Diosdado Macapagal in 1965. In 1972, facing a Muslim revolt in the south, a leftist rural insurgency, and student unrest, Marcos declared martial law.
He restored law and order, promoted social and economic reforms (often at the expense of his political foes), and created a political machine that remained dominant after martial law was lifted in 1981. Critics charged that he also enriched himself and his friends at the expense of the country. On Aug. 21, 1983, Marcos’ chief political rival Benigno S. Aquino, Jr. , was assassinated as he returned to the Philippines from exile. Marcos loyalists were accused of complicity in the killing, which touched off waves of popular protest.
The opposition gained in the 1984 legislative elections and a left-wing insurgency grew steadily, fueled by government repression and a declining economy. To renew his mandate, Marcos called early presidential elections, which were held on Feb. 7, 1986. Opposition leader Corazon Aquino and her running mate Salvador Laurel were backed by much of the business community and the influential Roman Catholic Church. When the National Assembly declared Marcos the victor amid widespread charges of electoral fraud, Aquino launched a campaign of nonviolent resistance to secure the post many believed she had won.
On February 22, when defense minister Juan Ponce Enrile and army deputy chief of staff Lt. -Gen. Fidel Ramos resigned, huge crowds of ordinary Filipinos turned out to protect the dissident military leaders, and the United States increased its pressure on Marcos to step down. On February 25, after Marcos and Aquino held rival inaugurations, Marcos left for exile in the United States, which quickly recognized Aquino as president. Aquino took steps to restructure the government and the military, restore civil liberties, promote free enterprise, and retrieve public monies illegally appropriated by Marcos and his cronies.
She freed political prisoners, announced her desire to negotiate with leftist leaders, and agreed to honor the treaty allowing the United States to operate military facilities at Clark Air Base and Subic Bay Naval Base. Despite popular support, however, Aquino faced formidable problems. These included the Communist insurgency, the weak economy, widespread social injustice, continued opposition from Marcos backers, and squabbles within her own diverse coalition. Unable to reach a negotiated settlement with Communist insurgents, she was also criticized for failing to halt corruption.
Marcos died in 1989, but many former allies, including former defense minister Juan Ponce Enrile challenged her and Vice President Salvador Laurel, who resigned as foreign minister in 1987 and was named head of the opposition Nacionalista party in 1989. In December 1989, after the most serious of several coup attempts by dissident soldiers was quelled with U. S. military aid, a six-month limited state of emergency was declared. Aquino survived a seventh coup attempt in October 1990.
In 1991 the eruption of Mount Pinatubo forced the United States to abandon Clark Air Base, and the Philippine Senate rejected a new 10-year lease for the country’s remaining U. S. military facility, Subic Naval Base, weakening the historic ties between the two countries. Defense minister Fidel Ramos, a long-time Aquino supporter who helped her survive seven coup attempts by dissident soldiers, won a seven-way presidential contest in May 1992 with only 23. 5% of the vote. He assumed the presidency on June 30.
The last of the U. S. military and naval units were withdrawn from the Philippines in November, ending a presence that had existed since 1898. Mount Mayon, a volcano situated 330 km (205 mi) south of Manila, erupted in February 1993. He fought for the Philippines 2000 Tiger Economy. His term brought about a progress to the Philippines. The Asia Pacific Economic Congress (APEC) was held in the Philippines during his term. Replacing him was the present President Joseph Ejercito Estrada. Winning the May 11, 1998 election, many controversies arises and Filipinos looking forward to a better future having him as the new president.

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