Chapter 15 Review Questions
1. What is innate immunity?
2. What is species resistance?
3. What are the first lines of defense?
4. How does the skin act in immunity? (hint: structure and secretions)
5. How do mucous membranes act in immunity?
6. How does the lacrimal apparatus act in immunity?
7. What is microbial antagonism? Why is it beneficial?
8. When does the second line of defense act?
9. What are the formed elements?
10. What are granulocytes? What are the 3 types?
11. What are agranulocytes? What are the 2 types?
12. What is the benefit of a differential white blood cell count?
13. What is phagocytosis?
14. What is the function of eosinophils?
15. What is the function of NK lymphocytes?
16. What is the function of neutrophils?
17. What cells undergo nonphagocytic killing? How do they do this?
18. What are toll-like receptors?
19. How do interferons aid in the immune system? How do alpha and beta interferons work?
20. What is tetherin and how does it play a role in immunity?
21. What is complement? What does complement activation lead to?
22. How is complement activated?
23. How does the classical pathway activate? Alternative pathway?
24. What protein does the classical and alternative pathway converge on?
25. What does C3a do? C3b?
26. What is inflammation? What is acute inflammation? 
27. What is the function of basophils and mast cells? Where are these cells found?
28. What molecule is the primary inflammatory signal? How is it released?
29. Why is increased vascular permeability beneficial?
30. What is fever? How is it activated?
31. Why is fever beneficial?

Chapter 16 Review Questions
1. What are the attributes of adaptive immunity?
2. What are the 2 types of adaptive immune responses? What cells mediate the 2 responses?
3. How does the lymphatic system aid in immunity?
4. What is an antigen? What is an exogenous antigen? Endogenous? Autoantigen?
5. What is the major function of B cells?
6. What is the BCR? What are the characteristics of a BCR?
7. What is an antibody? What are they identical to?
8. What functions do antibodies do? Explain each function.
9. What is an important characteristic of IgM? IgG? IgA? IgE?
10. Where are B and T cells typically found?
11. What do T cells act primarily against?
12. What are the differences between a BCR and a TCR?
13. What do cytotoxic T cells do? Helper T cells? Regulatory T cells?
14. What membrane proteins are on Tc cells? TH cells? B cells?
15. What is the function of CD4? CD8?
16. What is the importance of Helper T cells?
17. What is clonal deletion?
18. What are cytokines?
19. What is the purpose of interleukins?
20. What is the purpose of chemokines?
21. What is the importance of major histocompatibility complex proteins (MHC)?
22. What type of antigen is found on MHC I? How are these antigens processed?
23. What type of antigen is found on MHC II? How are these antigens processed?
24. How are TH cells activated?
25. How are Tc cells activated?
26. What is the double requirement of T cell activation?
27. How do cytotoxic T cells kill cells?
28. What are memory T cells? What is their importance?
29. Is T cell activation regulated? Explain
30. When is humoral immune response activated?
31. What are the 2 types of humoral immune responses?
32. What happens if a B cell binds an antigen with repeating subunits?
33. How do TH activate B cells?
34. What are plasma cells? What do they secrete?
35. What are memory B cells? What is their importance?
36. How is a primary response different from a secondary response?
37. What are the types of acquired immunity? Explain all 4 and know examples.
38. What is immune privilege? Where are the immunologically privileged sites?
39. Why is it ideal to have these sites privileged?

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