Intellectual Power: How it is Measured, and its Effect on Learning Intellectual Power: How it is Measured, and its Effect on Learning Intellectual power, brainpower and mental capacity can all be defined as intelligence. According to The Developing Child, intelligence is a set of abilities defined in various ways by different psychologists but generally agreed to include the ability to reason abstractly, the ability to profit from experience, and the ability to adapt to varying environmental contexts (Bee & Boyd, 2012, p. 67). Basically, intelligence is the ability to acquire and apply knowledge and skills. The first modern intelligence measuring tests where created over one hundred years ago. These tests where designed to incorporate the same tasks the children were performing in school; math, reading comprehension, vocabulary etc. The results of these tests identified children who may have had some problems or difficulties in school (Bee & Boyd, 2012, p. 167).
Since that period, the measuring of intelligence has drastically changed. The most widely accepted method of assessing intellectual power is a standardized test called the intelligent quotient, or IQ test. The IQ test is a performance test that ranks an individual’s intelligence based on a score generated from tests results. This score compares the individual to his or her peers. For children, the test scores are compared to his or her counterparts of the same chronological age group (Bee & Boyd, 2012, p. 67). Another type of intelligence testing is achievement testing. These types of tests assess what a child has been taught and learned in school. It is based on specific material such as vocabulary or algebra. Just like the IQ test, it is also a test based on performance (Bee & Boyd, 2012, p. 171). Intelligence testing has been amongst the most controversial topics in psychology and other professional arenas such as education as well as amongst the general public (Gottfredson & Saklofske, 2009, p. 84). There are many that feel that standardized tests, like the IQ test, are not a sufficient indicator of intelligence. Howard Gardner, a developmental psychologist, believes that there are multiple types of intelligences. He broke them into seven categories: * Verbal/Linguistic intelligence – The ability to use words effectively * Logical/Mathematical Intelligence – The ability to use reasoning skills * Visual/Spatial Intelligence – The ability to ecreate one’s visual experiences * Bodily/Kinesthetic Intelligence – To establish harmony between body and mind * Musical/Rhythmic Intelligence – The ability to create/respond to a pattern of sounds * Interpersonal Intelligence – The ability to evaluate feelings of others * Intrapersonal Intelligence – To accurately evaluate one’s own feelings The seven intelligences enable the individual, “to perform transformations and modifications of one’s perceptions” and “to recreate aspects of one’s experiences” (Gardner 1983, p. 173). An additional intelligence, Naturalistic (nature), was added to Gardner’s theory in the 1990s.
The IQ test and other standardized tests at present, do not measure all “eight” intelligences proposed in Gardner’s theory. Almost everyone agrees that intelligence is a product of nature and nurture, genetics and environment. The study of intelligence and how it affects learning has been ongoing for years. There are so many questions that don’t have exact answers which hinder the efforts of those trying to analyze the relationship between intelligence and learning: “How is intelligence measured? What method is used to assess learning? ” For the majority, intelligence is directly related to learning.
The more “intelligent” you are, the more capacity of learning can take place. References Bee, H. ; Boyd, D. (2012). The Developing Child (13th Edition). Pearson Education Inc. Gardner, H. (1993a). Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences /10th Anniversary Edition. New York: Basic Books. Retrieved from: http://www. intime. uni. edu/model/teacher/teac1summary. html Gottfredson L. ; Saklofske D. (2009). Intelligence: Foundations and Issues in Assessment. Canadian Psychology © 2009 Canadian Psychological Association. Vol. 50, No. 3, 183–195