® GMAT® Critical Reasoning Practice Set – 1 2 Aristotle Prep ® Also Check Out: – Aristotle Sentence Correction Grail – Aristotle RC Practice Sets 1 & 2 -Ultimate One minute Explanations to OG12SC -Aristotle New SC Question bank Available for FREE Download on our website 1) Aristotle CR Question Bank 2) US B-Schools Ranking 2012 3) Quant Concepts & Formulae 4) Global B-School Deadlines 2012 5) OG 11 & 12 Unique Questions’ list 6) GMAT Scoring Scale Conversion Matrix 7) International (non-US) B-Schools Ranking www. aristotleprep. com 3 Introduction
A lot of GMAT instructors recommend that to improve their score on the Critical Reasoning section of the GMAT, students should practice from LSAT Logical Reasoning questions. While overall this strategy is fine, one problem students face is that a lot of the questions on the LSAT are not representative of those on the GMAT; some have dubious answers while some are of a question type that is not tested on the GMAT at all. To help students overcome this problem we, at Aristotle, have come out with compilation of 101 LSAT questions that are very similar to those that students are likely to see on the GMAT.
All these questions have been compiled from past official LSAT tests (tests which are readily available in the public domain) and we haven? t made any changes to these. An answer key has been provided at the end of this booklet but explanations for each answer have not been provided. In case you want detailed explanation to a question(s) please post the question(s) on „Forums? section on our website – www. aristotleprep. com – and one of experts will revert within 24 hours of the same. Good luck! CR Practice Set – 1 www. aristotleprep. com the the the our 4 1.
Ann: All the campers at Camp Winnehatchee go to Tri -Cities High School Bill: That? s not true. Some Tri-Cities students are campers at Camp Lakemont. Bill? s answer can be best explained on the assumption that he has interpreted Ann? s remark to mean that (A) most of the campers at Camp Lakemont come from high schools other than T riCities (B) most Tri-Cities High School students are campers at Camp Winnehatchee (C) some Tri-Cities High School students have withdrawn from Camp Lakemont (D) all Tri-Cities High School students have withdrawn from Camp Lakemont (E) only campers at Camp Winnehatchee are students at Tri -Cities High School . More than a year ago, the city announced that police would crack down on illegally parked cars and that resources would be diverted from writing speeding tickets to ticketing illegally parked cars. But no crackdown has taken place. The police chief claims that resources have had to be diverted from writing speeding tickets to combating the city? s staggering drug problem. Yet the police are still writing as many speeding tickets as ever. Therefore, the excuse about resources being tied up in fighting drug-related crime simply is not true.
The conclusion in the passage depends on the assumption that (A) every member of the police force is qualified to work on combating the city? s drug problem (B) drug-related crime is not as serious a problem for the city as the police chief claims it is (C) writing speeding tickets should be as important a priority for the city as combating drug-related crime (D) the police could be cracking down on illegally parked cars and combating the drug problem without having to reduce writing speeding tickets (E) the police cannot continue writing as many speeding tickets as ever while diverting resources to combating drug-related crime . Dried grass clippings mixed into garden soil gradually decompose, providing nutrients for beneficial soil bacteria. This results in better -than-average plant growth. Yet mixing fresh grass clippings into garden soil usually causes poorer than-average plant growth. Which one of the following, if true, most helps to explain the difference in plant growth described above? (A) The number of beneficial soil bacteria increases whenever any kind of plant material is mixed into garden soil. (B) Nutrients released by dried grass clippings are immediately available to beneficial soil bacteria. ww. aristotleprep. com 5 (C) Some dried grass clippings retain nutrients originally derived from commercial lawn fertilizers, and thus provide additional enrichment to the soil. (D) Fresh grass clippings mixed into soil decompose rapidly, generating high levels of heat that kill beneficial soil bacteria. (E) When a mix of fresh and dried grass clippings is mixed into garden soil, plant growth often decreases. 4. A gas tax of one cent per gallon would raise one billion dollars per year at current consumption rates.
Since a tax of fifty cents per gallon would therefore raise fifty billion dollars per year, it seems a perfect way to deal with the federal budget deficit. This tax would have the addi tional advantage that the resulting drop in the demand for gasoline would be ecologically sound and would keep our country from being too dependent on foreign oil producers. Which one of the following most clearly identifies an error in the author? s reasoning? (A) The author cites irrelevant data. (B) The author relies on incorrect current consumption figures. C) The author makes incompatible assumptions. (D) The author mistakes an effect for a cause. (E) The author appeals to conscience rather than reason. 5. There is no reason why the work of scientists has to be officially confirmed before being published. There is a system in place for the confirmation or disconfirmation of scientific finding, namely, the replication of results by other scientists. Poor scientific work on the part of any one scientist, which can include anything from careless reporting practices to fraud, is not harmful. It will be exposed and rendered harmless hen other scientists conduct the experiments and obtain disconfirmatory results. Which one of the following, if true, would weaken the argument? (A) Scientific experiments can go unchallenged for many years before they are replicated. (B) Most scientists work in universities, where their work is submitted to peer review before publication. (C) Most scientists are under pressure to make their work accessible to the scrutiny of replication. (D) In scientific experiments, careless reporting is more common than fraud. (E) Most scientists work as part of a team rather than alone. 6.
Alice: Quotas on automobile imports to the United States should be eliminated. Then domestic producers would have to compete directly with Japanese manufacturers and would be forced to produce higher-quality cars. Such competition would be good for consumers. www. aristotleprep. com 6 David: You fail to realize, Alice, that quotas on automobile imports are pervasive worldwide. Since German, Britain, and France have quotas, so should the United States. Which one of the following most accurately characterizes David? s response to Alice? s statement? (A) David falsely accuses Alice of contradicting herself. B) David unfairly directs his argument against Alice personally. (C) David uncovers a hidden assumption underlying Alice? s position. (D) David takes a position that is similar to the one Alice has taken. (E) David fails to address the reasons Alice cites in favour of her conclusion. 7. Governments have only one response to public criticism of soci ally necessary services: regulation of the activity of providing those services. But governments inevitably make the activity more expensive by regulating it, and that is particularly troublesome in these times of strained financial resources.
However, sin ce public criticism of child-care services has undermined all confidence in such services, and since such services are socially necessary, the government is certain to respond. Which one of the following statements can be inferred from the passage? (A) The quality of child care will improve. (B) The cost of providing child-care services will increase. (C) The government will use funding to foster advances in child care. (D) If public criticism of policy is strongly voiced, the government is certain to respond. (E) If child-care services are not regulated, the cost of providing child care will not increase. . Advertisers are often criticized for their unscrupulous manipulation of people? s tastes and wants. There is evidence, however, that some advertisers are motivated by moral as well as financial considerations. A particular publication decided to change its image from being a family newspaper to concentrating on sex and violence, thus appealing to a different readership. Some advertisers withdrew their advertisements from the publication, and this must have been because they morally disapproved of publishing salacious material. Which one of the following, if true, would most strengthen the argument? A) The advertisers switched their advertisements to other family newspapers. (B) Some advertisers switched from family newspapers to advertise in the changed publication. (C) The advertisers expected their product sales to increase if they stayed with the changed publication, but to decrease if they withdrew. (D) People who generally read family newspapers are not likely to buy newspapers that concentrate on sex and violence. (E) It was expected that the changed publication would appeal principally to those in a different income group. www. aristotleprep. com 7 9.
If retail stores experience a decrease in revenues during this holiday season, then either attitudes toward extravagant gift-giving have changed or prices have risen beyond the level most people can afford. If attitudes have changed, then we all have something to celebrate this season. If prices have risen beyond the level most people can afford, then it must be that salaries have not kept pace with rising prices during the past year. Assuming the premises above to be true, if salaries have kept pace with rising prices during the past year, which one of the following must be true? (A) Attitudes toward extravagant gift-giving have changed. B) Retail stores will not experience a decrease in retail sales during this holiday season. (C) Prices in retail stores have not risen beyond the level that most people can afford during this holiday season. (D) Attitudes toward extravagant gift-giving have not changed, and stores will not experience a decrease in revenues during this holiday season. (E) Either attitudes toward extravagant gift-giving have changed or prices have risen beyond the level that most people can afford during this holiday season. 10. The “suicide wave” that followed the United States stock market crash of October 1929 is more legend than fact.
Careful examination of the monthly figures on the causes of death in 1929 shows that the number of suicides in October and in November was comparatively low. In only three other months were the monthly figures lower. During the summer months, when the stock market was flourishing, the number of suicides was substantially higher. Which one of the following, if true, would best challenge the conclusion of the passage? (A) The suicide rate is influenced by many psychological, interpersonal, and societal factors during any given historical period. B) October and November have almost always had relatively high suicide rates, even during the 1920s and 1930s. (C) The suicide rate in October and November of 1929 was considerably higher than the average for those months during several preceding and following years. (D) During the years surrounding the stock market crash, suicide rates were typically lower at the beginning of any calendar year than toward the end of that year. (E) Because of seasonal differences, the number of suicides in October and November of 1929 would not be expected to be the same as those for other months. 11.
Learning how to build a nest plays an important part in the breeding success of birds. For example, Dr. Snow has recorded the success of a number of blackbirds in several successive years. He finds that birds nesting for the first time are less successful in breeding than are older birds, and also less successful than they themselves are a year later. This cannot be a mere matter of size and strength, since blackbirds, like the great majority of birds, are fully grown when they leave www. aristotleprep. com 8 the nest. Thus, it is difficult to avoid the conclusion that they benefit by their nesting experience.
Which one of the following, if true, would most weaken the argument? (A) Blackbirds build better nests than other birds. (B) The capacity of blackbirds to lay viable eggs increases with each successive trial during the first few years of reproduction. (C) The breeding success of birds nesting for the second time is greater than that of birds nesting for the first time. (D) Smaller and weaker blackbirds breed just as successfully as bigger and stronger blackbirds. (E) Up to 25 percent of all birds are killed by predators before they start to nest. 12.
How do the airlines expect to prevent commercial plane crashes? Studies have shown that pilot error contributes to two-thirds of all such crashes. To address this problem, the airlines have upgraded their training programs by increasing the hours of classroom instruction and emphasizing communication skills in the cockpit. But it is unrealistic to expect such measures to compensate for pilots? lack of actual flying time. Therefore, the airlines should rethink their training approach to reducing commercial crashes. Which one of the following is an assumption upon which the argument depends? A) Training programs can eliminate pilot errors. (B) Commercial pilots routinely undergo additional training throughout their careers. (C) The number of airline crashes will decrease if pilot training programs focus on increasing actual flying time. (D) Lack of actual flying time is an important contributor to pilot error in commercial plane crashes. (E) Communication skills are not important to pilot training programs. Questions 13-14 are based on the following: Despite improvements in treatment for asthma, the death rate from this disease has doubled during the past decade from its previous rate.
Two possible explanations for this increase have been offered. First, the recording of deaths due to asthma has become more widespread and accurate in the past decade than it had been previously. Second, there has been an increase in urban pollution. However, since the rate of deaths due to asthma has increased dramatically even in cities with long-standing, comprehensive medical records and with little or no urban pollution, one must instead conclude that the cause of increased deaths is the use of bronchial inhalers by asthma sufferers to relieve their symptoms. 13.
Each of the following, if true, provides support to the argument EXCEPT: (A) Urban populations have doubled in the past decade. (B) Records of asthma deaths are as accurate for the past twenty years as for the past ten years. (C) Evidence suggests that bronchial inhalers make the lungs more sensitive to irritation by airborne pollen. www. aristotleprep. com 9 (D) By temporarily relieving the symptoms of asthma, inhalers encourage sufferers to avoid more beneficial measures. (E) Ten years ago bronchial inhalers were not available as an asthma treatment. 14. Which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends? A) Urban pollution has not doubled in the past decade. (B) Doctors and patients generally ignore the role of allergies in asthma. (C) Bronchial inhalers are unsafe, even when used according to the recommended instructions. (D) The use of bronchial inhalers aggravates other diseases that frequently occur among asthma sufferers and that often lead to fatal outcomes even when the asthma itself does not. (E) Increased urban pollution, improved recording of asthma deaths, and the use of bronchial inhalers are the only possible explanations of the increased death rate due to asthma. 15.
There is little point in looking to artists for insights into political issues. Most of them hold political views that are less insightful than those of any reasonably well educated person who is not an artist. Indeed, when taken as a whole, the statements made by artists, including those considered great, indicate that artistic talent and political insight are rarely found together. Which one of the following can be inferred from the passage? (A) There are no artists who have insights into political issues. (B) A thorough education in art makers a person reasonably well educated. C) Every reasonably well-educated person who is not an artist has more insight into political issues than any artist. (D) Politicians rarely have any artistic talent. (E) Some artists are no less politically insightful than some reasonably well educated persons who are not artists. 16. Rita: The original purpose of government farm subsidy programs was to provide income stability for small family farmers. But most farm -subsidy money goes to a few farmers with large holdings. Payments to farmers whose income, before subsidies, is greater than $100,000 a year should be stopped.
Thomas: It would be impossible to administer such a cut -off point. Subsidies are needed during the planting and growing season, but farmers do not know their income for given calendar year until tax returns are calculated and submitted the following April. Which one of the following, if true, is the strongest counter Rita can make to Thomas’ objection? (A) It has become difficult for small farmers to obtain bank loans to be repaid later by money from subsidies. (B) Having such a cut-off point would cause some farmers whose income would otherwise exceed $100,000 to reduce their plantings. www. ristotleprep. com 10 (C) The income of a farmer varies because weather and market prices are not stable from year to year. (D) If subsidy payments to large farmers were eliminated the financial condition of the government would improve. (E) Subsidy cut-offs can be determined on the basis of income for the preceding year. 17. Modern physicians often employee laboratory tests, in addition to physical examinations, in order to diagnose diseases accurately. Insurance company regulations that deny coverage for certain laboratory tests therefore decrease the quality of medical care provided to patients.
Which one of the following is an assumption that would serve to justify the conclusion above? (A) Physical examinations and the uncovered laboratory tests together provide a more accurate diagnosis of many diseases than do physical examinations alone. (B) Many physicians generally oppose insurance company regulations that, in order to reduce costs, limit the use of laboratory tests. (C) Many patients who might benefit from the uncovered laboratory tests do not have any form of health insurance. D) There are some illnesses that experienced physicians can diagnose accurately from physicians examination alone. (E) Laboratory tests are more costly to perform than are physical examinations. 18. Oil analysts predict that if the price of oil falls by half, the consumer’s purchase price for gasoline made from this oil will also fall by half. Which one of the following, if true, would cast the most serious doubt on the prediction made by the oil analysts? (A) Improved automobile technology and new kinds of fuel for cars have enabled some drivers to use less gasoline. B) Gasoline manufacturers will not expand their profit margins. (C) There are many different gasoline companies that compete with each othe r to provide the most attractive price to consumers. (D) Studies in several countries show that the amount of gasoline purchased by consumers initially rises after the price of gasoline has fallen. (E) Refining costs, distribution costs, and taxes, none of which varies significantly with oil prices, constitute a large portion of the prices of gasoline. 19. A survey was recently conducted among ferry passengers on the North Sea.
Among the results was this: more of those who had taken anti -seasickness medication before their trip reported symptoms of seasickness than those who had not taken such medication. It is clear then, that despite claims by drug companies that clinical tests show the contrary, people would be better off not taking anti -seasickness medications. Which one of the following, if true, would most weaken the conclusion above? www. aristotleprep. com 11 (A) Given rough enough weather, most ferry passengers will have some symptoms of seasickness. (B) The clinical tests reported by the drug companies were conducte d by the drug companies’ staffs. C) People who do not take anti -seasickness medication are just as likely to respond to a survey on seasickness as people who do. (D) The seasickness symptoms of the people who took anti -seasickness medication would have been more severe had they not taken the medication. (E) People who have spent money on anti -seasickness medication are less likely to admit symptoms of seasickness than those who have not. 20. Economic considerations colour every aspect of international dealings, and nations are just like individuals in that the lender sets the terms of its dealings with the borrower.
That is why a nation that owes money to anoth er nation cannot be world leader. The reasoning in the passage assumes which one of the following? (A) A nation that does not lend to any other nation cannot be a world leader. (B) A nation that can set the terms of its dealings with other nations is certain to be a world leader. (C) A nation that has the terms of its dealings with another action set by that nation cannot be a world leader. (D) A nation that is a world leader can borrow from another nation as long as that other nation does not set the terms of the dealings between the two nations. E) A nation that has no dealings with any other nation cannot be world leader. 21. Political theorist: The chief foundations of all governments are the legal system and the police force and as there cannot be a good legal system where the police are not well paid, it follows that where the police are well paid there will be good legal system. The reasoning in the argument is not sound because it fails to establish that: (A) many governments with bad legal systems have poorly paid police forces. B) bad governments with good legal systems must have poorly paid police forces. (C) a well-paid police force cannot be effective without a good legal system. (D) a well-paid police force is sufficient to guarantee a good legal system (E) some bad governments have good legal systems. 22. Court records from medieval France show that in the years 1300 to 1400 the number of people arrested in the French realm for “violent interpersonal crimes” (not committed in wars) increased by 30 percent over the number of people arrested for such crimes in the years 1200 to 1300.
The increase was not the result of false arrests; therefore, medieval France had a higher level of documented interpersonal violence in the years 1300 to 1400 than in the years 1200 to 1300. Which one of the following statements, if true, most seriously weakens the argument? www. aristotleprep. com 12 (A) In the years 1300 to 1400 the French government’s category of violent crimes included an increasing variety of interpersonal crimes that are actually nonviolent. (B) Historical accounts by monastic chroniclers in the years 1300 to 1400 are fill ed with descriptions of violent attacks committed by people living in the French realm C) The number of individual agreements between two people in which they swore oaths not to attack each other increased substantially after 1300. (D) When English armies tried to conquer parts of France in the mid – to late 1300s. violence in the northern province of Normandy and the south -western province of Gascony increased. (E) The population of medical France increased substantially during the first five decades of the 1300s until the deadly bubonic plague decimated the population of France after 1348. 23.
Rhizobium bacteria living in the roots of bean plants or other le gumes produce fixed nitrogen which is one of the essential plant nutrients and which for non -legume crops, such as wheat normally must be supplied by applications of nitrogen -based fertilizer. So if biotechnology succeeds in producing wheat strains whose r oots will play host to Rhizobium bacteria, the need for artificial fertilizers will be reduced. The argument above makes which one of the following assumptions? (A) Biotechnology should be directed toward producing plants that do not require artificial fertilizer. B) Fixed nitrogen is currently the only soil nutrient that must be supplied by artificial fertilizer for growing wheat crops. (C) There are no naturally occurring strains of wheat or other grasses that have Rhizobium bacteria living in their roots. (D) Legumes are currently the only crops that produce their own supply of fixed nitrogen. (E) Rhizobium bacteria living in the roots of wheat would produce fixed nitrogen. 24. Current legislation that requires designated sections for smokers and non-smokers on the premises of privately owned businesses is an intrusion into the private sector that cannot be justified.
The fact that studies indicate that non-smokers might be harmed by inhaling the smoke from others’ cig arettes is not the main issue. Rather, the main issue concerns the government’s violation of the right of private businesses to determine their own policies and rule. Which one of the following is principle that, if accepted, could enable the conclusion to be properly drawn? (A) Government intrusion into the policies and rules of private businesses is justified only when individuals might be harmed. (B) The right of individuals to breathe safe air supersedes the right of businesses to be free from government intrusion. C) The right of businesses to self-determination overrides whatever right or duty the government may have to protect the individual. (D) It is the duty of private businesses to protect employees from harm in the workplace. (E) Where the rights of businesses and the duty of government conflict, the main issue is finding a successful compromise. www. aristotleprep. com 13 25. Leachate is a solution, frequently highly contaminated, that develops when water permeates a landfill site. If and only if the landfill’s capacity to hold liquids is exceeded does the leachate escape into the environment, genera lly in unpredictable quantities.
A method must be found for disposing of leachate. Most landfill leachate is send directly to sewage treatment plants, but not all sewage plants are capable of handling the highly contaminated water. Which one of the following can be inferred from the passage? (A) The ability to predict the volume of escaping landfill leachate would help solve the disposal problem. (B) If any water permeates a landfill, leachate will escape into the environment. (C) No sewage treatment plants are capable of handling leachate. (D) Some landfill leachate is send to sewage treatment plants that re incapable of handling it. (E) If leachate does not escape from a landfill into the environment, then the landfill’s capacity to hold liquids has not been exceeded. 26. The soaring prices of scholarly and scientific journals have forced academic libraries used only by academic researchers to drastically reduce their list of subscriptions. Some have suggested that in each academic discipline subscription decisions should be determined solely by a journal’s usefulness in that discipline, measured by the frequency with which it is cited in published writings by researchers in the discipline.
Which one of the following, if true, most seriously calls into question the sugge stion described above? (A) The non-academic readership of a scholarly or scientific journal can be accurately gauged by the number of times articles appearing in it are cited in daily newspapers and popular magazines. (B) The average length of a journal article in some sciences, such as physics, is less than half the average length of a journal article in some other academic disciplines, such as history. (C) The increasingly expensive scholarly journals are less and less likely to be available to the general public from non-academic public libraries. D) Researchers often will not cite a journal article that has influenced their work if they think that the journal in which it appears is not highly regarded by the leading researchers in the mainstream of the discipline (E) In some academic disciplines, controversies which begin in the pages of one journal spill over into articles in other journals that are widely read by researchers in the discipline. 27. The average level of fat in the blood of peo ple suffering from acute cases of disease W is lower than the average level for the population as a whole.
Nevertheless, most doctors believe that reducing blood-fat levels is an effective way of preventing acute W. www. aristotleprep. com 14 Which one of the following, if true, does most to justify this apparently paradoxical belief? (A) The blood level of fat for patients who have been cured of W is on average the same as that for the population at large. (B) Several of the symptoms characteristic of acute W have been produced in laboratory animals fed large doses of a synthetic fat substitute, though acute W itself has not been produced in this way. C) The progression from latent to acute W can occur only when the agent that causes acute W absorbs large quantities of fat from the patient’s blood. (D) The levels of fat in the blood of patients who have disease W respond abnormally slowly to changes in dietary intake of fat. (E) High levels of fat in the blood are indicative of several diseases that are just as serious as W. 28. Baking for winter holidays is tradition that may have a sound medical basis. In midwinter, when days are short, many people suffer from a specific type of seasonal depression caused by lack of sunlight.
Carbohydrates, both sugars and starches, boost the brain’s levels of serotonin, a neurotransmitter that improve the mood. In this respect, carbon hydrates act on the brain in the same way as some antidepressants. Thus, eating holiday cookies may provide an effective form of self prescribed medication. Which one of the following can be properly inferred from the passage? (A) Seasonal depression is one of the most easily treated forms of depression. (B) Lack of sunlight lowers the level of serotonin in the brain. (C) People are more likely to be depressed in midwinter than at other times of the year. D) Some antidepressants act by changing the brain’s level of serotonin. (E) Raising the level of neurotransmitters in the brain effectively relieves depression. 29. The current proposal to give college students a broader choice in planning their own courses of study should be abandoned. The students who are supporting the proposal will never be satisfied, no matter what requirements are established. Some of these students have reached their third year without declaring a major. One first-year student has failed to complete four required courses. Several others have indicated a serious indifference to grades and intellectual achievement.
A flaw in the argument is that it does which one of the following? (A) avoids the issue by focusing on supporters of the proposal (B) argues circularly by assuming the conclusion is true in stating the premises. (C) fails to define the critical term “satisfied” (D) distorts the proposal advocated by opponents (E) users the term “student” equivocally 30. The question whether intelligent life exists elsewhere in the universe is certainly imprecise because we are not sure how different from us something might be and still count as “intelligent life”. Yet we cannot just decide to define “intelligent life” in www. ristotleprep. com 15 some more precise way since it is likely that we will find and recognize intelligent life elsewhere in the universe only if we leave our definitions open to new, unimagined possibilities. The argument can most reasonably be interpreted as an objection to which one of the following claims? (A) The question whether intelligent life exists elsewhere in the universe is one that will never be correctly answered. (B) Whether or not there is intelligent life elsewhere in the universe, our understanding of intelligent life is limited. (C) The question about the existence of intelligent life elsewhere in the niverse must be made more precise if we hope to answer it correctly. (D) The question whether there is intelligent life elsewhere in the universe is so imprecise as to be meaningless. (E) The question whether there is intelligent life elsewhere in the universe is one we should not spend our time trying to answer. 31. Pedro: Unlike cloth diapers, disposable diapers are a threat to the environment. Sixteen billion disposable diapers are discarded annually, filling up landfills at an alarming rate. So people must stop buying disposable diapers and use cloth diapers.
Maria: But you forget that cloth diapers must be washed in hot water, which requires energy. Moreover, the resulting wastewater pollutes our rivers. When families use diaper services, diapers must be delivered by fuel -burning trucks that pollute the air and add to traffic congestion. Maria objects to Pedro’s argument by (A) claiming that Pedro overstates the negative evidence about disposable diapers in the course of his argument in favour of cloth diapers. (B) indicating that Pedro draws a hasty conclusion, based on inadequate evidence about cloth diapers. C) pointing out that there is an ambiguous use of the word “disposable” in Pedro’s argument (D) demonstrating that cloth diapers are a far more serious threat to the environment than disposable diapers are (E) suggesting that the economic advantages of cloth diapers outweigh whatever environmental damage they may cause 32. In an experiment, two-year-old boys and their fathers made pie dough together using rolling pins and other utensils. Each father-son pair used a rolling pin that was distinctively different from those used by the other, “father -son pairs, and each father repeated the phrase “rolling pin” each time his son used it.
But when the children were asked to identify all of the rolling pins among a group of kitchen utensils that included several rolling pins, each child picked only the one that he had used. Which one of the following inferences is most supported by the information above? (A) The children did not grasp the function of rolling pin. www. aristotleprep. com 16 (B) No two children understood the name “rolling pin” to apply to the same object (C) The children understood that all rolling pins have the same general shape. (D) Each child was able to identify correctly only the utensils that he had used. E) The children were not able to distinguish the rolling pins they used from other rolling pins. 33. When 100 people who have not used cocaine are tested for cocaine use, on average only 5 will test positive. By contrast, of every 100 people who have used cocaine 99 will test positive. Thus, when a randomly chosen group of peopl e is tested for cocaine use, the vast majority of those who test positive will be people who have used cocaine. A reasoning error in the argument is that the argument (A) attempts to infer a value judgment from purely factual premises. B) attributes to every member of the population the properties of the average member of the population. (C) fails to take into account what proportion of the population have used cocaine. (D) ignores the fact that some cocaine users do not test positive. (E) advocates testing people for cocaine use when there is no reason to suspect that they have used cocaine. 34. With the passage of the new tax reform law the annual tax burden on low -income taxpayers will be reduced, on average, by anywhere from $100 to $300. Clearly, tax reform is in the interest of low-income taxpayers.
Which one of the following, if true, most undermines the conclusion above? (A) Tax reform, by simplifying the tax code will save many people the expense of having an accountant do their taxes. (B) Tax reform, by eliminating tax incentives to build rental housing, will push up rents an average of about $40 per month for low-income taxpayers. (C) Low-income taxpayers have consistently voted for those political candidates who are strong advocates of tax reform. (D) The new tax reform laws will permit low and middle-income taxpayers to deduct Child-care expenses from their taxes. E) Under the new tax reform laws, many low-income taxpayers who now pay taxes will no Longer be required to do so. 35. If we are to expand the exploration of our solar system our next manned flight should be to Phobos, one of Mars? s moons, rather than to Mars itself. The fli ght times to each are the same but the Phobos expedition would require less than half the fuel load of a Mars expedition and would, therefore, be much less costly. So, it is clear that Phobos should be our next step in space exploration. Which one of the following, if true, would most help to explain the difference in fuel requirement? A) More equipment would be required to explore Phobos than to explore Mars. (B) Smaller spaceships require less fuel than larger spaceships. www. aristotleprep. com 17 (C) Information learned during the trip to Phobos can be used during a subsequent trip to Mars. (D) The shortest distance between Phobos and Mars is less than half the shortest distance Between Earth and Mars. (E) Lift-off for the return trip from Phobos requires much less fuel than that from Mars because of Phobos weaker gravitational pull. 36.
Scientific research that involves international collaboration has produ ced papers of greater influence, as measured by the number of times a paper is cited in subsequent papers, than has research without any collaboration. Papers that result from international collaboration are cited an average of seven times, whereas papers with single authors are cited only three times on average. This difference shows that research projects conducted by international research teams are of greater importance than those conducted by single researchers. Which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends? A) Prolific writers can inflate the number of citations they receive by citing themselves in subsequent papers. (B) It is possible to ascertain whether or not a paper is the product of international collaboration by determining the number of citations it has received (C) The number of citations a paper receives is a measure of the importance of the research it reports. (D) The collaborative efforts of scientists who are citizens of the same country do not produce papers that are as important as papers that are prod uced by international collaboration. E) International research teams tend to be more generously funded than are single researchers. 37. It is more desirable to have some form of socialized medicine than a system of medical care relying on the private sector. Socialized medicine is more broadly accessible than is private-sector system. In addition, since countries with socialized medicine have a lower infant mortality rate than do countries with a system relying entirely on the private sector, socialized medicine seems to be technologically superior.
Which one of the following best indicates a flaw in the argument about the technological superiority of socialized medicine? (A) The lower infant mortality rate might be due to the systems allowing greater access to Medical care (B) There is no necessary connection between the economic system of socialism and Technological achievement. (C) Infant mortality is a reliable indicator of the quality of medical care for children. (D) No list is presented of the countries whose infant mortality statistics are summarized under the two categories, “socialized” and “private-sector”. E) The argument presupposes the desirability of socialized medicine, which is what the Argument seeks to-establish. www. aristotleprep. com 18 38. Lourdes: Dietary fibre is an important part of a healthful diet. Experts recommend that adults consume 20 to 35 grams of fibre a day. Kyra: But a daily intake of fibre that is significantly above that recommended level interferes with mineral absorption, especially the absorption of calcium. The public should be told to cut act on fibre intake Which one of the following, if true, most undermines Kyra? s recommendation? A) Among adults, the average consumption of dietary fibre is at present approximately 10 grams a day. (B) The more a food is processed, the more the fibre is broken down and the lower the fibre content. (C) Many foodstuffs that are excellent sources of fibre are economical and readily available (D) Adequate calcium intake helps prevent the decrease in bone mass known as osteoporosis. (E) Many foodstuffs that are excellent sources of fibre are popular with consumers. 39. Book Review: When I read a novel set in a city I know well, I must see that the writer knows the city as well as I do if I am to take that writer seriously.
If the writer is faking I know immediately and do not trust the writer. When a novelist demonstrates the required knowledge, I trust the story teller, so I trust the tale. This trust increases my enjoyment of a good novel. Peter Lee’s second novel is set in San Francisco, in this novel, as in his first, Lee passes my test with flying colours. Which one of the following can be properly inferred from the passage? (A) The book reviewer enjoys virtually any novel written by a novelist whom she trusts B) If the book reviewer trusts the novelist as a storyteller, the novel in question must be set in a city the book reviewer knows well (C) Peter Lee’s first novel was set in San Francisco (D) The book reviewer does not trust any novel set in a city that she does not know well (E) The book reviewer does not believe that she knows San Francisco better than Peter Lee does 40. Prominent business executives often play active roles in United States presidential campaigns as fundraisers or backroom strategists but few actually seek to become president themselves.
Throughout history the great majority of those who have sought to become president have been l awyers, military leaders, or full -time politicians. This is understandable, for the personality and skills that make for success in business do not make for success in politics. Business is largely hierarchical, whereas politics is coordinative; as a result, business executives tend to be uncomfortable with compromises and power sharin g, which are inherent in politics. Which one of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the proposed explanation of why business executives do not run for president? A) Many of the most active presidential fundraisers and backroom strategists are themselves politicians. www. aristotleprep. com 19 (B) Military leaders are generally no more comfortable with compromises and power sharing than are business executives. (C) Some of the skills needed to become a successful lawyer are different from some of those needed to become a successful military leader. (D) Some former presidents have engaged in business ventures after leaving office (E) Some hierarchically structured companies have been major financial supporters of candidates for president. 1. A scientific theory is a good theory i f it satisfies two requirements – it must accurately describe a large class of observations in terms of a model that is simple enough to contain only a few elements, and it must make definite predictions about the results of future observations. For example, Aristotle? s cosmological theory, which claimed that everything was made out of four elements – earth, air, fire, and water – satisfied the first requirement but it did not make any definite prediction. Thus, Aristotle? cosmological theory was not a good theory. If all the statements in the passage are true, each of the following must also be true EXCEPT: (A) Prediction about the results of future observations must be made by any good scientific theory. (B) Observation of physical phenomena was not a major concern in Aristotle? s cosmological Theory (C) Four elements can be the basis of a scientific model that is simp le enough to meet the Simplicity criterion of a good theory. (D) A scientific model that contains many elements is not a good theory (E) Aristotle? cosmological theory described a large class of observations in terms of only four elements. 42. Compared to non-profit hospitals of the same size, investor-owned hospitals require less public investment in the form of tax breaks, use fewer employees, and have higher occupancy levels. It can therefore be concluded that investor -owned hospitals are a better way of delivering medical care than are non-profit hospitals. Which one of the following, if true, most undermines the conclusion drawn above? (A) Non-profit hospitals charge more per bed than do investor-owned hospitals. B) Patients in non-profit hospitals recover more quickly than don patients with comparable Illnesses in investor-owned hospitals (C) Non-profit hospitals do more fundraising than do investor-owned hospitals. (D) Doctors at non-profit hospitals earn higher salaries than do similarly qualified doctors at investor-owned hospitals. (E) Non-profit hospitals receive more donations than do investor-owned hospitals. 43. The ancient Egyptian pharaoh Akhenaten, who had a profound effect during his lifetime on Egyptian art and religi on, was well loved and highly respected by his subjects.
We know this from the fierce loyalty show to him by his palace guards, as documented in reports written during Akhenaten? s reign. A questionable technique used in the argument is to: www. aristotleprep. com 20 (A) Introduce information that actually contradicts the conclusion (B) Rely on evidence that in principle would be impossible to challenge (C) Make a generalization based on a sample that is likely to be unrepresentative (D) Depend on the ambiguity of the term “ancient” (E) Apply present-day standards in an inappropriate way to ancient times 44.
Zelda: Dr. Ladlow, a research psychologist, has convincingly demonstrated that his theory about the determinants of rat behaviour generates consistently accurate predictions about how rats will perform in a maze. On the basis of this evidence Dr. Ladlow has claimed that his theory is irrefutably correct. Anson: Then Dr. Ladlow is not responsible psychologist. Dr. Ladlow? s evidence does not conclusively prove that his theory is correct. Responsible psychologists always accept the possibility that new evidence will show that their theories are incorrect.
Which one of the following can be properly inferred from Anson? s argument? (A) Dr. Ladlow? s evidence that his theory generates consistently accurate predictions about how rates will perform in a maze is inaccurate (B) Psychologists who can derive consistently accurate predictions about how rats will perform in a maze from their theories cannot responsibly co nclude that those theories cannot be disproved (C) No matter how responsible psychologists are, they can never develop correct theoretical explanations. (D) Responsible psychologists do not make predictions about how rats will perform in a maze E) Psychologists who accept the possibility that new evidence will show that their theories are incorrect are responsible psychologists. 45. Smith: Meat in the diet is healthy, despite what some people say. After all, most doctors do eat meat, and who knows more about health than doctors do? Which one of the following is a flaw in Smith? s reasoning? (A) Attacking the opponents? motives instead of their argument (B) Generalizing on the basis of a sample consisting of a typical cases (C) Assuming at the outset what the argument claims to establish through reasoning D) Appealing to authority, even when different authorities give conflicting advic e about an issue (E) Taking for granted that experts do not act counter to what, according to their expertise, in their best interest 46. The brains of identical twins are genetically identical. When only one of a pair of identical twins is a schizophrenic, certain areas of the affected twin? s brain are smaller than corresponding areas in the brain of the unaffected twin. No such differences are found when neither twin is schizophrenic. Therefore, this discovery www. aristotleprep. com 1 provides definitive evidence that schizophrenia is caused by damage to the physical structure of the brain. Which one of the following is an assumption required by the argument? (A) The brain of person suffering from schizophrenia is smaller than the brain of anyone not suffering from schizophrenia (B) The relative smallness of certain parts of the brains of schizophrenics is not the result of schizophrenia or of medications used i n its treatment. (C) The brain of a person with an identical twin is no smaller, on average, than the brain of person who is not twines. D) When a pair of identical twins both suffer from schizophrenia, their brains are the same size (E) People who have an identical twin are no more likely to suffer from schizophrenia than those who do not. 47. Sixty adults were asked to keep a diary of their meals, including what they consumed, when, and in the company of how many people . It was found that at meals with which they drank alcoholic beverages, they consumed about 175 calories more from non-alcoholic source than they did at meals with which they did not drink alcoholic beverages.
Each of the following, if true, contributes to an explanation of the difference in caloric intake EXCEPT: (A) Diners spent a much longer time at meals served with alcohol than they did at those serve without alcohol. (B) The meals eaten later in the day tended to be larger than those eaten earlier in the day, and later meals were more likely to include alcohol. (C) People eat more when there are more people present at the meal, and more people tended to be present at meal served with alcohol than at meal s served without alcohol. D) The meals that were most carefully prepared and most attractively served tended to be those at which alcoholic beverages were consumed (E) At meals that included alcohol, relatively more of the total calories consumed came from carbohydrates and relatively fewer of them came from fats and proteins. 48. Something must be done to ease traffic congestion. In traditional small towns, people used to work and shop in the same town in which they lived, but now that stores and workplaces are located far away from residential areas, people cannot avoid travelling long distances each day.
Traffic congestion is so heavy on all roads that, even on major highways, the maximum speed averages only 35 miles per hour. Which one of the following proposals is most supported by the statements above? (A) The maximum speed limit on major highways should be increased. (B) People who now travel on major highways should be encouraged to travel on secondary roads instead. (C) Residents of the remaining traditional small towns should be encouraged to move to the suburbs. www. aristotleprep. com 22 (D) Drivers who travel well below the maximum speed limit on major highways should be fined. E) New businesses should be encouraged to locate closer to w here their workers would live. 49. College professor: College students do not write nearly as well as they used to. Almost all of the papers that my students have done for me this year have been poorly written and ungrammatical. Which one of the following is the most serious weakness in the argument made by the professor? (A) It requires confirmation that the change in the professor’s students is representative of a change among college students in general. (B) It offers no proof to the effect that the professor is an accurate judge of writing ability. C) It does not take into account the possibility that the professor is a poor teacher. (D) It fails to present contrary evidence. (E) It fails to define its terms sufficiently. 50. Mayor of Plainsville: In order to help the economy of Plainsville, I am using some of our tax revenues to help bring a major highway through the town and thereby attract new business to Plainsville. Citizens’ group: You must have interests other than our economy in mind. If you were really interested in helping our economy, you would instead allocate the revenues to building a new business park since it would bring in twice the business that your highway would.
The argument by the citizens group relies on which one of the following assumptions? (A) Plainsville presently has no major highways running through it. (B) The mayor accepts that a new business park would bring in more new business than would the new highway. (C) The new highway would have no benefits for Plainsville other than attracting new business. (D) The mayor is required to get approval for all tax revenue allocation plans from the city council. (E) Plainsville’s economy will not be helped unless a new business park of the sort envisioned by the citizens’ group is built. 51.
Recently, highly skilled workers in Eastern Europe have left jobs in record numbers to emigrate to the West. It is therefore likely that skilled workers who remain in Eastern Europe are in high demand in their home countries. Which one of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument? (A) Eastern European factories prefer to hire workers from their home countries rather than to import workers from abroad. www. aristotleprep. com 23 (B) Major changes in Eastern European economic structures have led to the elimination of many positions previously held by the highly skilled emigrants. C) Many Eastern European emigrants need to acquire new skills after finding work in the West. (D) Eastern European countries plan to train many new workers to replace the highly skilled workers who have emigrated. (E) Because of the departure of skilled workers from Eastern European countries, many positions are now unfilled. 52. Two palaeontologists, Dr Tyson and Dr. Rees, disagree over the interpretation of certain footprints that were left among other footprints in hardened volcanic ash at site G. Dr.
Tyson claims they are clearly early hominid footprints since they show human characteristics: a squarish heel and a big toe immediately adjacent to the next toe. However, since the footprints indicate that if hominids made those prints they would have had to walk in an unexpected cross-stepping manner, by placing the left foot to the right of the right foot. Dr. Rees rejects Dr. Tyson’s conclusion. Which one of the following, if true, most seriously undermines Dr. Tyson’s conclusion? (A) The foot prints showing human characteristics were clearly those of at least two distinct individuals. B) Certain species of bears had feet very like human feet, except that the outside toe on each foot was the biggest toe and the innermost toe was the smallest toe. (C) Footprints shaped like a human’s that do not show a cross -stepping pattern exist at site M, which is a mile away from site G, and the two sets of footprints are contemporaneous. (D) When the moist volcanic ash became sealed under additional layers of ash before hardening, some details of some of the footprints were erased. (E) Most of the other footprints at site G were of animals with hooves. 53.
It is not known whether bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), a disease of cattle invariably deadly to them, can be transmitted directly from one infected animal to another at all stages of the infection. If it can be, there is now a reservoir of infected cattle incubating the disease. There are no diagnostic tests to identify infected animals before the animals show overt symptoms. Therefore, if such direct transmission occurs, the disease cannot be eradicated by ____ Which one of the following best completes the argument? (A) removing from the herd and destroying any diseased animal as soon as it shows the typical symptoms of advanced BSE B) developing a drug that kills the agent that cause BSE, and then treating with that drug all cattle that might have the disease (C) destroying all cattle in areas where BSE occurs and raising cattle only in areas to which BSE is known not to have spread (D) developing a vaccine that confers lifelong immunity against BSE and giving it to all cattle, destroying in due course all those animals for which the vaccine protection came too late www. aristotleprep. com 24 (E) developing a diagnostic test that does identify any infected animal and destroying all animals found to be infected 4. Auto industry executive: Statistics show that cars that were built smaller af ter 1977 to make them more fuel-efficient had a higher incidence of accident-related fatalities than did their earlier larger counterparts. For this reason we oppose recent guidelines that would require us to produce cars with higher fuel efficiency. Which of the following, if true, would constitute the strongest objection to the executive’s argument? (A) Even after 1977, large automobiles were frequently involved in accidents that caused death or serious injury. B) Although fatalities in accidents involving small cars have increased since 1977, the number of accidents has decreased. (C) New computerized fuel systems can enable large cars to meet fuel efficiency standards established by the recent guidelines. (D) Modern technology can make small cars more fuel-efficient today than at any other time in their production history. (E) Fuel efficiency in models of large cars rose immediately after 1977 but has been declining ever since. 55. No one who lacks knowledge of a subject is competent to pass judgment on that subject.
Since political know-how is a matter, not of adhering to technical rules, but of insight and style learned through apprenticeship and experience, only seasoned politicians are competent to judge whether a particular political policy is fair to all. A major weakness of the argument is that it (A) relies on a generalization about the characteristic that makes someone competent to pass judgment (B) fails to give specific examples to illustrate how political know-how can be acquired (C) uses the term “apprenticeship” to describe what is seldom a formalized relationship D) equates political know-how with understanding the social implications of political policies (E) assumes that when inexperienced politicians set policy they are guided by the advice of more experienced politicians 56. Impact craters caused by meteorites smashing into earth, have been found all around the globe but they have been found in the greatest density in geologically stable regions. This relatively greater abundance of securely identified crater s in geologically stable regions must be explained by the lower rates of d estructive geophysical processes in those regions.
The conclusion is properly drawn if which one of the following is assumed? (A) A meteorite that strikes exactly the same spot as an earlier meteorite will obliterate all traces of the earlier impact. www. aristotleprep. com 25 (B) Rates of destructive geophysical processes within any given region vary markedly throughout geological time. (C) The rate at which the Earth is struck by meteorites has greatly increased in geologically recent times. (D) Actual meteorite impacts have been scattered fairly evenly over the Earth’s surface in the course of Earth’s geological history. E) The Earth’s geologically stable regions have been studied more intensively by geologists than have its less stable regions. 57. That the policy of nuclear deterrence has worked thus far is unquestionable. Since the end of the Second World War, the very fact that there were nuclear armaments in existence has kept major powers from using nuclear weapons, for fear of starting a worldwide nuclear exchange that would make the land of the power initiating it uninhabitable. The proof is that a third world war between superpowers has not happened. Which one of the following, if true, indicates a flaw in the argument? A) Maintaining a high level of nuclear armaments represents a significant drain on a country’s economy. (B) From what has happened in the past, it is impossible to infer with certainty what will happen in the future, so an accident could still trigger a third world war between superpowers. (C) Continuing to produce nuclear weapons beyond the minimum needed for deterrence increases the likelihood of a nuclear accident. (D) The major powers have engaged in many smaller-scale military operations since the end of the Second World War, while refraining from a nuclear onfrontation. (E) It cannot be known whether it was nuclear deterrence that worked, or some other factor, such as a recognition of the economic value of remaining at peace. 58. A survey of alumni of the class of 1960 at Aurora University yielded puzzling results. When asked to indicate their academic rank, half of the respondents reported that they were in the top quarter of the graduating class in 1960. Which one of the following most helps account for the apparent contradict ion above? (A) A disproportionately large number of high -ranking alumni responded to the survey. B) Few, if any, respondents were mistaken about their class rank. (C) Not all the alumni who were actually in the top quarter responded to the survey. (D) Almost all of the alumni who graduated in 1960 responded to the survey. (E) Academic rank at Aurora University was based on a number of considerations in addition to average grades. 59. The seventeenth-century physicist Sir Isaac Newton is remembered chiefly for his treaties on motion and gravity. But Newton also conducted experiments secretly for www. aristotleprep. com 26 any years based on the arcane theories of alchemy, trying unsuccessfully to transmute common metals into gold and produce rejuvenating elixirs. If the alchemists of the seventeenth century had published the results of their experiments, chemistry in the eighteenth century would have been more advanced that it actually was. Which one of the following assumptions would allow the conclusion concerning eighteenth-century chemistry to be properly drawn? (A) Scientific progress is retarded by the reluctance of historians to acknowledge the failures of some of the great scientists. B) Advances in science are hastened when reports of experiments, whether successful or not, are available for review by other scientists. (C) Newton’s work on motion and gravity would not have gained wide acceptance if the results of his work in alchemy had also been made public. (D) Increasing specialization within the sciences makes it difficult for scientists in one field to understand the principles of other fields. (E) The seventeenth-century alchemists could have achieved their goals only if their experiments had been subjected to public scrutiny. 0. Sedimentary rock hardens within the earth’s crust as lavers of matter accumulate and the pressure of the layers above converts the layers below into rock. One particular layer of sedimentary rock that contains an unusual amount of the element iridium has been presented as support for a theory that a meteorite collided with the earth some sixty million years ago. Meteorites are rich in iridium compared to the earth’s crust, and geologists theorize that a meteorite’s collision with the earth raised a huge cloud of iridium-laden dust.
The dust, they say, event