European Renaissance & Reformation
Chapter 1 European Renaissance & Reformation Unit 1 – Italy: Birthplace of the Renaissance Revolution – the Italian Renaissance was a rebirth of learning that produced many great works of art & literature. Renaissance art & literature still influence modern thought & modern art. Renaissance – period of European history, 1300-1600, rebirth, a renewed interest in classical culture lead to changes in art, learning, & views of the world.
Humanism – Renaissance intellectual movement that focused on studying classical texts, human potential & achievements. Secular – Renaissance society was worldly rather than spiritual & concerned with the ere & now. Patron – a person who supports artists, especially financially. Perspective – an artistic technique that creates the appearance of 3 dimensions on a flat surface.
Vernacular – native language; the everyday language of people in a region or country. Italy’s Advantages City-States Merchants & the Medici Looking to Greece & Rome Classical & Worldly Values Classics lead to humanism Worldly pleasures Patrons of the arts The Renaissance man The Renaissance woman The Renaissance Revolutionizes art Realistic painting & sculpture Leonardo, Renaissance Man Raphael advances realism Anguish & Gentiles
Renaissance writers change literature Patriarch & Vacation Machiavelli advises rulers Aviators Colonial Unit 2 – The Northern Renaissance Cultural interaction – in the sass, the ideas of the Italian Renaissance began to spread to Northern Europe Renaissance ideas such as the importance of the individual are a strong part of modern thought. Utopia – an imaginary land described by Thomas More in his book “Utopia”, an ideal place William Shakespeare – most famous writer of the Elizabethan Age; born in 1562; liked the classics & drew on them for inspiration & plots.
Johann Gutenberg – a craftsman from Mains, Germany, developed a printing press sing a number of technologies to make it possible to produce books quickly & cheaply; printed a complete Bible in 1455. Artistic ideas spread German painters Flemish painters Northern Writers try to reform society Christian humanists Women’s reforms The Legacy of the Renaissance Changes in the arts Changes in society Unit 3 – Luther leads the Reformation Revolution – Martin Lather’s protest over abuses in the Catholic Church led to the founding of Protestant churches.
Nearly 1/5 of the Christians in today’s world Causes of the Reformation Criticisms of the Catholic Church Early calls for reform Luther challenges the church The 95 theses re Protestants. Indulgence – a pardon releasing a person from punishments due for a sin. Reformation – 16th-century movement for religious reform, leading to the founding of Christian churches that rejected the pope’s authority.
Lather’s teachings The response to Luther The Pope’s threat The Emperor’s opposition Lutheran – member of a Protestant church founded on the teachings of Martin Luther. The Peasants’ Revolt Germany at War Protestant – member of a Christian church founded on the principles of the Reformation. Peace of Suburbs – a 1 555 agreement declaring that the religion of each German state would be decided by its ruler. England becomes Protestant Henry VIII wants a son Annul – to cancel or set aside.
The Reformation Parliament Consequences of Henrys Changes Elizabeth restores Protestantism Anglican – relating to the Church of England. Elizabeth faces other challenges Unit 4 – The Reformation Continues Religious & ethical systems – as Protestant reformers divided over beliefs, the Catholic Church made reforms. Many Protestant churches began during this period, and many Catholic schools are he result of reforms in the Church. Predestination Calvinist Theocracy Presbyterian Anabaptist Catholic Reformation Jesuits Council of Treats