Economy, Religion, Government & Education
The essence of politics is power. Power is the capacity of people or groups to control or influence the actions of others, whether those others wish to cooperate or not. There are three mechanisms for controlling the actions of others: reward, punishment, and controlling of information.
Authority and power legitimating Two classification of Power that categorized by Sociologist: Legitimate power – Power used in a way that is generally recognized as socially right and necessary. Illegitimate power – Power used without social approval. Example: Gangsters who demand and receive protection money from a shopkeeper y threatening violence are using illegitimate power. Government agencies that demand and receive a sales tax from the same shopkeeper are using legitimate power. Democracy – literally means “rule of the people. In a true democracy, the powers of government derive from the formal consent of the governed, and citizens have a right to participate in decision-making process. In a representative democracy, the most common type, citizens vote for officials to represent them. Only in very small democratic systems can each citizen affect government by direct involvement; this hype of democracy is called participatory or direct democracy. Totalitarianism – is run by a single party, in which there is governmental surveillance and control over all aspects of life.
The totalitarian state creates an official ideology, a total world view and a set of rules of behavior. Rival worldviews are suppressed, rival religious groups are persecuted, and the works of many artists and intellectuals are censored. Authoritarianism Authoritarianism – ultimate authority is vested in a single person. The ruler may be either a monarch (a hereditary ruler), or a dictator (someone who as come to power and typically holds that power by means of force). Ideology and political parties do not play a major role in the authoritarian regime.
There are important differences between authoritarian and totalitarian regimes: An authoritarian regime is one that does not tolerate political opposition but is prepared to allow institutions and sectors of society to function free of the state provided they do not engage in political activity. A totalitarian regime is one that seeks to impose state control over every institution of society, regardless of whether it engages in within an all-embracing political design. Berger, 1986:83-84) Authority refers to legitimate power that is institutional in nature.
Max Weber classified the main sources of social authority into three types: Traditional authority is authority that is conferred by custom and accepted practice. In a hereditary monarchy, the power of the head of the government is legitimated by birth. Charismatic authority is authority that is generated by the personality or exceptional personal appeal of an individual. Legal-rational authority is authority that rests on rationally established rules. State – Some legitimate power or authority is found in every group or organization.
Formal and Non-Formal Education Informal education is learning through interaction with others in the group. Non- formal education consists of sets of definite learning goals and objectives. Non- formal education is not covered by traditional school system. Social organizations, private companies, government offices, livelihood training centers, and other institutions administer non-formal education. Formal education is synonymous with “school. ” It sets definite goals and objectives reached through systematized, formal instruction methods. Schools are run by the state, by private individuals or reparations, or by religious groups.