Descriptions And Categories Of Hurricanes Environmental Sciences Essay
Hurricanes are tropical storms with air current velocities transcending 74mph. They typically occur over oceans and get down their formations from the equatorial parts of the universe. They are really complex conditions phenomena that are still hard to understand. They are besides called tropical cyclones and typhoons. in order for them to be classified in 1969 by Saffir, H and Simpson, B. developed a graduated table which is used to categorise them, this is refered to as the Saffir-Simpson graduated table. They range from least harmful to the most harmful ranging from class 1-5 ( Katsaros et al, 2002, ) . Hurricanes are normally accompanied by storm rushs. In order to understand the character of hurricanes the ambiance over oceans are continuously observed by assorted conditions orbiters in infinite, and other aerial detectors. Storm surges normally accompany hurricanes.
Cardinal Pressures in millibars
Miles per hour
& gt ; 980
& lt ; 920
& gt ; 155
Table 1: Showing Saffir-Simpson graduated table
“ Beginning: Adapted from katsaros et Al ( 2002 ) ”
Figure 1: Partss of a hurricane
“ Beginning: NASA online ”
The parts which are: the oculus, the wall and the rain sets.
Remote Sensing of hurricanes.
As a consequence of their really destructive nature, hurricanes are monitored by orbiters and aerial remote feeling engineerings. The type of detectors used scope from the optical, micro-cook and non merely by conditions orbiters but by several other orbiters. In the instance of exigencies other orbiters are besides used to supervise hurricanes. Table 2 below shows some of the orbiters and aerial detectors that are used in the instance of exigencies to supervise hurricanes. Optical and micro-cook orbiters are frequently really critical in supervising hurricanes as they tend to come on. Due to their big spacial declarations, they can be used to track the flight of hurricanes. These optical imagination are besides sometimes used in the absence of Radar techniques, to analyze the physical belongingss of hurricanes. These physical belongingss include: liquid H2O way, thermodynamic stage of atoms and their approximative size ( Kokhanovsky & A ; Hoyningen-Huene, 2004 )
In order to supervise hurricanes as they progress, in order for hurricanes to be understood in the context of its character and physical belongingss, microwave orbiters provide seasonably atmospheric coverage as they can perforate clouds and due to their long wavelengths and work irrespective of twenty-four hours or dark. ( Navalgund et al, 2007 ) . Scatterometers, Man-made Aperture Radar and micro-cook radiometers are some of the instruments uses in microwave remote feeling. While Scatterrometers and Man-made Aperture Radar are active detectors breathing their ain energy, Microwave Radiometers merely step reflected energy transmitted to it as it is a inactive detector. Scatterometers are used to mensurate surface air current velocities and way. They measure ocean surface raggedness and are really sensitive instruments. If the air current velocity is non
Of all the declarations, a high temporal declaration is the most of import in tracking the way of a hurricane. This is non to state that radiometric, spectral and spacial declarations are non of import. This is necessary in order to adequately foretell the way of the hurricane and to efficaciously supervise its advancement to state if its strength is reduced or increased. Besides, information and information about hurricanes can easy go out-of-date as as the hurricane changes its class. Timely airing of informations from a hurricane is necessary in order for the terminal usage which might be a catastrophe monitoring bureau to accurately circulate information to the general populace.
Besides, a high spectral declaration is needed in order to easy separate between sets, to be able to properly analyse informations presented. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer ( MODIS ) has really high spectral declaration of 32 sets when compared with Landsat Thematic plotter which has 7 sets ( Womble et al 2006 ) . In the trailing of the hurricane, a really larger spectral declaration will find the peculiarity between sets and the ability to spot information. Determining the perpendicular construction of the ambiance requires a high spectral declaration infrared observations. ( Schmit et al 2009 ) .
Synergy or a combination of the assorted distant feeling engineerings frequently produce the best information needed to understand hurricanes. In a study carried by MCEER in the aftermath of hurricane Katrina, it was found that earlier forcasts about the class of the storm was incorrect. By uniting informations from assorted assorted orbiters, the true magniturde of the hurricane was determined ( Womble et al 2006 ) . Future tendencies in hurricane forcasting will concentrate on bettering spectral declaration in order to be able to easy demonstrated engineering such as the advanced IR sounder engineering will enable “ A geostationary advanced IR sounder would supply breakthrough measurings on the clip development of horizontal and perpendicular H2O vapour and temperature
constructions. These measurings would be an unprecedented beginning of information on the dynamic and thermodynamic atmospheric Fieldss, an of import benefit to nowcasting and numerical conditions anticipation ” ( Schmit et al 2009 ; 2274 )
A high radiometric declaration on the other manus will take to greater peculiarity in images. The higher the spectral declaration of the image, the more characteristics can be distinguished. The areal extent covered when tracking a hurricane should non be so much in order for the Instantaneous field of position non to be excessively much. In accessing jeopardies after the hurricane, a spacial declaration is needed. As u can non hold it all, trade offs are made and determinations as to instruments which can integrate all of these features possibly will give better apprehension of hurricanes.Table 2: Distant feeling informations used in hurricane monitoring.
“ Beginning: Womble et Al ( 2006 ) ”
REMOTE SENSING OF HURRICANES
The first conditions orbiters which were launched provided planetary coverage of conditions events and due to their low spacial declarations. They besides had high temporal declarations supplying seasonably updates every bit frequently as every 30mins. These orbiters include
APPROPRIATENESS OF REMOTE SENSING TECHNOLOGY TO SOCIO ECONOMIC SITUATION
The socio-economic stableness attained by the western universe has enabled her to accomplish and be able to develop and afford really expensive engineering such as distant detection. The placing of orbiters in infinite whether Geostationary or polar orbiting and the usage of other signifiers of airborne ( aeroplanes, balloons etc ) Remote Sensing Technology, the benefits derivable from timely warning of catastrophes such as hurricanes can non be of all time emphasized ( Murthi & A ; Madhusudan 2008 ) . Without this engineering natural happenings such as hurricanes can non be predicted.
Remote feeling engineering by enabling early sensing of natural catastrophes and triping off widespread warning enables catastrophe warning and catastrophe direction proparations to be carried out. Disaster direction organic structures such as FERMA, seashore guard both of the united provinces are better equipped to work decently and can assist salvage 100s of 1000s of lives and harm to belongings can besides be reduced. “ Satellite observations of land, oceans, atmosphere, and specifically, during natural and human-induced jeopardies have become important for protecting the planetary environment, cut downing catastrophe losingss, and accomplishing sustainable development ” ( Navagundi et al 2007: 1747 ) .
As a consequence of timely warning of impending catastrophes, concerns are given early warnings and can shut on clip, and belongingss which can be moved out of injuries manner were moved. In 1992, hurricane Andrew destroyed about 25,524 places and damaged another 101,241 taking to estimated amendss of $ 25billion. Besides, in 2005 hurricanes Denis, Katrina, Rita and Wilma caused huge amendss amounting to $ 32.83 billion ( Otero et al 2009 ) .
IMPORTANCE OF REAL TIME REMOTE SENSING TECHNOLOGY
In supervising hurricanes as they grow and advancement, existent clip information or information is required as information can easy go out-of-date. Timely data entree and airing is really of import peculiarly in hurricanes. Although satellite engineering provides information about hurricanes they do non demo plenty item to be able to really accurately predict their tends or proctor hurricanes. NASA normally flies aircraft into the oculus of the hurricane to be able to acquire more item about the hurricanes. In cases when it is excessively unsafe to wing, aircrafts that do non necessitate worlds are flown into the hurricanes to be able to acquire more inside informations and timely updates.
Hurricane Katrina presented new frontiers for research as it showed oversights in satellite anticipations. Initial premises based on the safir-simpson graduated table declared hurricane Katrina as a class 4 storm. Latter ratings utilizing a synergism of low declaration orbiters, moderate declaration orbiters, high declaration orbiters and high declaration aerial imagination showed that it was a class 3 storm and that the sum of devastation that accompanied it was a consequence of the storm rush which was still category 5 ( Womble et at 2006 ) . Detailss of the orbiters and their declarations is given below in table 2. Had the exact strength of the storm rush been known before Katrina hit, there would hold been a more equal readying and exigency response.
Dabas, A. ( 2010 ) Detecting the Atmospheric air current from infinite. Comptes Rendus Geosciences. Article in imperativeness. Available from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.sciencedirect.com [ last accessed 02 January 2010 ]
Harding, L.W. , Miller, W.D. , Swift, R.N. & A ; Wright, C.W. ( 2003 ) Aircraft Remote Sensing. Encyclopaedia of Ocean Sciences. Pp.113-122. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.sciencedirect.com [ last accessed 02 January 2010 ]
Katsaros, K.B. Vachon, P.W. Liu, W.T. & A ; Black, P.G ( 2002 ) Microwave Remote Sensing of Tropical Cyclones from Space. Journal of Oceanography [ Internet ] January 58 ( 1 ) , pp.137-151 Available from & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www.springerlink.com & gt ; [ last accessed 2 January 2010 ]
Kokhanovsky, A.A. & A ; Hoyiningen-Huene, W.V. ( 2004 ) Optical belongingss of a hurricane. Atmospheric Research. [ Internet ] January-March 69 ( 3-4 ) pp.165-183 Available from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.sciencedirect.com [ last accessed 02 January 2010 ]
Levinson, D. H. , Vickery, P.J. & A ; Resio, D.T. ( 2008 ) A reappraisal of the climatological features of landfalling Gulf hurricanes for air current, moving ridge, and billow hazard appraisal. Ocean Engineering. Article in imperativeness.
Murthi, R.S. & A ; Madhusudan, H.N. ( 2008 ) Strategic considerations in Indian infinite programme-Towards maximising socio-economic benefits. Acta Astronuatica. [ Internet ] July-August 63 ( 1-4 ) pp.503-508 Available from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.sciencedirect.com [ last accessed 02 January 2010 ]
Navalgundi, R.R. Jayaraman, V. & A ; Roy, P.S. ( 2007 ) Remote Feeling Applications: An Overview. Current Science [ Internet ] December 93 ( 12 ) , pp.1747-1766 Available from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ias.ac.in/currsci/dec252007/1747.pdf
[ last accessed 02 January 2010 ]
Otero, C.E. , Velazquez, A. , Kostanic, I. , Subramanian, C. , Pinelli, J. & A ; Buist, L. ( 2009 ) Real-time Monitoring of Hurricane Winds utilizing Wireless and Sensor Technology. JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS. [ Internet ] December 4 ( 12 ) pp.1275-1285 Available from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.academypublisher.com/ojs/index.php/jcp/article/viewFile/041212751285/1332 [ last accessed 02 January 2010 ]
Schmit T.J. Li, J. Ackerman, S.A. & A ; Gurka, J.J. ( 2009 ) High-Spectral- and High-Temporal-Resolution Infrared Measurements from Geostationary Orbit. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology. [ Internet ] November, volume 26 pp.2273-2292 Available from hypertext transfer protocol: //ams.allenpress.com/archive/1520-0426/26/11/pdf/i1520-0426-26-11-2273.pdf [ last accessed 02 January 2010 ]
Womble, J.A. Ghosh, S. Adams, B.J. & A ; Friedland, C.J. ( 2006 ) Advanced Damage Detection for Hurricane Katrina: Integrating Remote Sensing and VIEWSa„? Field Reconnaissance. MCEER Special Report Series [ Internet ] March, Volume 2, pp hypertext transfer protocol: //mceer.buffalo.edu/publications/Katrina/06SP02-web.pdf [ last accessed 02 January 2010 ]
NASA ( 2004 ) How strong is that Hurricane. Available from
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.nasa.gov/audience/forstudents/k4/home/F_How_Strong_Is_That_Hurricane.html [ last accessed 02 January 2010 ]