Cultural Similarities and Differences
The Indian culture has different languages, which include Hindi, Bengali, and Urdu. The officially recognized language is Hindi with other local languages not recognized by the central government. Texans officially use American English with various variations and accents. Australian languages Include Australian slang, Indigenous Australian languages, and variations of Australian English (Dally, 1998). Nigeria has over 50 indigenous languages with very many local dialects. The predominant languages are Your, Bio, Afro -Asiatic and Kanji. The official language is English ND Is used across all states to unite the people.
Except India, the other three countries share a salary language (I. E. English) though It has small variations In accent and pronunciation. Family Systems Indians maintain close personal ties with their families including the extended family members. Family relationships are hierarchical and the father is the patriarchal leader of the family. All members have mutual obligations to their families and they maintain deep rooted trust among all relatives (Maker, 2008). Nigerian maintain an extended family system with relationships guided by hierarchy and seniority.
Individuals are obliged to give the extended family members financial assistance and guidance (Coelenterates. N. D). The American family unit Is nuclear with the extended family living away from it. Individualism is highly practiced. The family set ups across the four countries recognizes the father as the head of the family. The role of extended family members is emphasized in Nigerian and Indian cultures where people recognize the senior members of the society. Australian and Texan cultures emphasize individualism and the societies generate highly independent people. Behavioral Norms
In India, greetings follow seniority with the most senior person being greeted first. Though shaking hands Is common, men seldom shake hands with women because of religious beliefs and It Is mandatory to bid each person farewell Individually when leaving a group. In Nigeria, shaking hands is the most common form of greeting. Men 1 OFF other person’s well being. Direct eye contact is avoided when meeting with older and senior members of the society and as a sign of respect one is expected to bow. Nigerian place importance to professional titles and surnames. In Texas greetings are casual, a handshake, a smile, and a hello are enough.
Men use only handshakes but women and children may hug and shake hands even in formal settings. Introductions are very important before any communication. It is considered rude to call senior persons by their first name. Men are supposed to be polite to ladies, they pull chairs and open doors for them and ladies are expected to say a polite thank you in return (Celebrities, 2012). Australian forms of greetings are informal and brief; shaking hands is common in formal setups. Ladies generally do not greet each other. Australians maintain good relationships with all people as they are down to earth ND modest.
Religion India is a secular state with a lot of religious diversity. Hinduism, Buddhism, Jansenism, and Schism are practiced by most of the people. Christianity is practiced by a minority. Texas has a wide range of religious diversity with Christianity being practiced by the majority. Adherence levels are very high and individual religious beliefs are tolerated. Religious diversity in Nigeria is great with Christianity and Islam being practiced by the majority. Native religions that believe in deities, spirits, and ancestral worship are spread throughout the country. The country constitution remunerates freedom of worship.
Majority of Australians are Christians with Islam being practiced by a few. Traditional aborigine religious cultures are practiced by a few aborigines as the others have converted to Christianity. The country laws are tolerant to different religious beliefs. Across the four countries, religion influences the culture of the people with Christianity, Salamis, Hinduism, and Judaism being recognized and accepted by the societies. Freedom of worship is allowed by their respective constitutions; but in Nigeria emergence of radical Salamis has affected he culture of the societies living in the affected areas.
Business Etiquette There are various ways in which business is approached in various societies. In Indian society, it is customary for all sides to personally know each other before any business transaction take place. Business meetings are planned by appointments and punctuality is kept as a sign of mutual respect. Negotiations are non confrontational and the final decision is made by the person with the most authority. Decision making is slow and informal and successful negotiations are concluded by a word of mouth and celebrated over a meal. Formal dressing during meetings is expected and shows respect.
In the Nigerian culture, developing a personal relationship is essential before any business transaction. Business is conducted in a formal setup and decision making involves all the stakeholders. Nigerian are overly suspicious and proceed with business cautiously. Punctuality for meetings is very important to Texans and it is a sign of disrespect to be late. There is little emphasis on small talk and business is conducted rapidly. To conduct business, an appointment is necessary in Australia. Business is conducted rapidly in a relaxed environment. Personal relationships and show of emotion is not important in their business transactions.
Conclusion The culture across all the four countries is steeped with differences and similarities continually changing with advent of globalization and information technology. The family and religious inclinations of these societies fundamentally influences their behavior, norms, and way of thinking. The cultures have inherent mechanisms of maintaining their way of life. In all the cultures, younger members are expected to respect their elders and this maintains social order. Though fundamentally different, arioso cultures have a lot to teach and are universally almost the same.