Coffee from Ampalaya Seeds
COFFEE FROM AMPALAYA SEEDS (Momordica Charantia) TABLE OF CONTENTS A. Background Of The Study3 B. Statement Of The Problem And Objectives Of The Study4 C. Significance Of The Study6 D. Scope And Limitations6 E.
Operational Definition Of Terms7 Chapter II8 Review Of Related Literature8 Chapter III11 Methodology11 A. Research Design11 B. Type Of Study12 C. Independent And Dependent Variable12 D. Treatments Of The Study13 E. Subjects / Samples13 F. Replications Per Treatment14 G.
Methodology Proper14 H. Statistical Treatment For Data Analysis17 Chapter IV18Results And Discussions18 Chapter V30 Summary, Conclusion And Recommendations30 Appendix32 Appendix A32 Appendix B34 BIBLIOGRAPHY36 References36 CHAPTER I Introduction A. Background Of The Study Coffee alternatives have been famous since the last two decades due to economic crisis and experimentations for health and medical benefits. Any seeds that are edible when powdered can be used as an alternative source for coffee. The difference of the generic coffee from the seeds of the coffee plant from those of the alternatives is that it has a good amount of caffeine content.
The similarity you can find in the alternatives and those of the original is that seeds contain carbohydrates which cause the aroma in roasted coffee [4, 5, and 6]. Ampalaya, on the other hand, is a crawling vine that grows mostly on tropical countries like the Philippines. It is said to be rich in iron, potassium, beta-carotene and other nutrients. It is also famous in treating diabetes because of its properties like polypeptide-P; a plant insulin that can lower blood sugar levels.Many researches on agricultural food chemistry convey that it provides nutritionally significant amounts of nutrients, minerals and amino acids that are needed for life [1, 2, and 3]. Ampalaya seeds when used as an alternative coffee will act as a stimulant, an herbal drink and at the same time can increase its additional properties like source for insulin and other nutrients found on Momordica charantia. Ampalaya seeds when used as dry powders have clearly demonstrated hypoglycemic activity .
The researchers decided to process Ampalaya seeds the same routine on how the coffee bean is processed into a drinking beverage and test its sensory qualities using sampling techniques. B. Statement Of The Problem And Objectives Of The Study Main Problem * Can Ampalaya Seeds (Momordica charantia) be made into coffee? Sub-Problems * Does the coffee out of Ampalaya (Momordica Charantia) Seeds have a good quality in terms of taste? color? odor? texture? * What are the sensory qualities of the different treatments in terms of taste? color? odor? texture? * Which of the groups/set-ups are acceptable in terms of its overall acceptability?A. Control (Pure Ampalaya Coffee) B. Control (Pure Commercial Coffee) C. Treatment A (75% Ampalaya Coffee, 25% Commercial Coffee) D. Treatment B (50% Ampalaya Coffee, 50% Commercial Coffee) E.
Treatment C (25% Ampalaya Coffee, 75% Commercial Coffee) General Objectives * This study primarily aims to determine if Ampalaya Seeds (Momordica charantia) can be made into coffee. Specific Objectives * To determine the quality of coffee out of Ampalaya (Momordica charantia) Seeds in terms of taste, color, odor and texture. * To identify the sensory qualities of the different treatments in terms of taste, color, odor and texture. To determine which of the groups/set-ups are acceptable in terms of its overall acceptability. A. Control (Pure Ampalaya Coffee) B. Control (Pure Commercial Coffee) C.
Treatment A (75% Ampalaya Coffee, 25% Commercial Coffee) D. Treatment B (50% Ampalaya Coffee, 50% Commercial Coffee) E. Treatment C (25% Ampalaya Coffee, 75% Commercial Coffee) C. Significance Of The Study This research can play a significant role in replacing the generic coffee’s market cost for affordability and its medical benefits for various types of diseases/sickness like diabetes and anemia.It can also conserve unused or to-be-thrown away seeds of Ampalaya and use it for a better cause. According to the study of YumikoYasui, its seeds have linoleic acid that can prevent coloncancer. It also contains polypeptide-P;a plant insulin that helps diabetic patients.
D. Scope And Limitations This research will be conducted on July–August 2012 at Paraiso Cmpd. Baybay City, Leyte. This study focuses on how to make Ampalaya (Momordica charantia) seeds into coffee. The whole fruit is not included in making the product, only the seeds are used to make coffee.The researchers are not focusing on the nutrient values that they can get in the Ampalaya (Momordica charantia) seeds nor will they include it in their research. Instead, the researchers are focusing in making coffee out of Ampalaya (Momordica charantia) seeds and in the sensory qualities (taste, color, and odor) of Ampalaya (Momordica charantia) coffeein comparison to the commercial coffee.
E. Operational Definition Of Terms * Momordica charantia * scientific name of the Ampalaya or Bitter Melon * polypeptide-P * a plant insulin found only in the Ampalaya * potentiate insulin is an alternative cancer treatment using insulin to administer low-dose chemotherapy or mandelonitrite * caffeine * is a bitter, white crystalline xanthine alkaloid that acts as a stimulant drug and a reversible acetylcholihesterase inhibitor * is found in varying quantities in the seeds, leaves, and fruits of some plants, where it acts as a natural pesticide that paralyzes and kills certain insects feeding on the plants * Coffea Arabica * is a species of coffea originally indigenous to the mountains of Yemen in the Arabian * Coffea canephora is a variety of coffea which has its origin in central and western sub-Saharan Africa * Hemileia vastatrix * severe symptoms of leaf rust * is a fungus of the order uredenales that causes coffee rust, a disease that is devastating to coffee plantations Chapter II Review Of Related Literature Coffee alternatives can be a solution to the serious need for a very economical, nutritious and medicinal coffee. It is very economical in the sense that its cost would be near to costless. It is nutritious that it has additional properties, vitamins and minerals that is very essential in the body’s growth and development.It is medicinal in a way that the coffee can cure several diseases more than ordinary commercial coffees can . Ampalaya seeds are a good alternative for making coffee because it has more similar properties to coffee beans like carbohydrate and its bitterness. It is also good for dysmenorrhea and amenorrhea, provides daily need of iron in the body, and is good for people with diabetes.
Ampalaya powdered seeds contain iron and folic acid which helps in the production of red blood cells and formation of myoglobin and hemoglobin.It is also rich in antioxidants that helps flushing out harmful toxins in the body and regulates the blood flow well. It also has been found out that this alternative may discourage people to use commercial coffee that has no nutritional value compared to coffee made from Ampalaya seeds [3, 7, and 8]. In the study conducted by Ma. Liza Lamanilao and Venus Sejalbo, entitled “Make/Making Ampalaya Seed Coffee and Polvoron”, in which their main objective is to make coffee and polvoron from unused ampalaya seeds that are being thrown away.They also specifically aims to develop this research to answer the serious need for a very economical, nutritious and a medicinal coffee. During the experiment in making coffee, they collected ampalaya seeds, remove the shells, toasted the seeds until the seeds will turn brown and finally, pound them to produce fine powdered coffee and a caffeine free coffee.
They also make nutritious polvoron by toasting again the granules together with milk and sugar. After the experiment, they have found out the nutritional value we could get in Ampalaya Seeds.It contains iron and folic acid or Vitamin B12 which helped the production of red blood cells and formation of myoglobin and hemoglobin. They also found out that Ampalaya Seeds is good for dysmenorrheal and amenorrhea and it provides the daily need of iron in the body and good for diabetics. It has been found out that the discovery may discourage the people to use the commercial coffee that has no nutritive value compared to coffee made from ampalaya seeds. Ampalaya Seeds is also a good substitute in making coffee based on nutritive value present in seeds. (http://www.
foodrecap. net/recipe/ampaya-coffee-pulvoron/)In the research entitled “Coffee, Decaffeinated Coffee and Tea Consumption in Relation to Incident Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus” which was conducted by Rachel Huxley, Dphil, et al. The study primarily aims to identify the relation between the Coffee, Decaffeinated Coffee, and Tea Consumption and the Incident of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. The data from 18 studies with information on 457 922 participants reported on the association between coffee consumption and diabetes. Six (N=225,516) and 7 studies (N=286,701) also reported estimates of the association between decaffeinated coffee and tea with diabetes respectively.
The putative protective effects of these beverages warrant further investigation in randomized trials. There was inverse log-linear relationship between coffee consumption and subsequent risk of diabetes such that every additional cup of coffee consumed in a day was associated with a 7% reduction in the excess risk of diabetes relative risk, 0. 93 (95% confidence interval, 0. 91-0. 95) after adjustment for potential confounders. Based on the results, the researchers owe to the presence of of small study bias represented an overestimate of the true magnitude of the association.The researchers concluded that high intakes of coffee, decaffeinated coffee and tea consumption can reduce risk of diabetes.
(http://archinte. jamanetwork. com/article. aspx? articleid=773949#) According to Rachel Huxley, DPhil and colleagues in the Archives of Internal Medicine during December 14, 2009 they conducted a study about “Every Cup of Coffee per Day Lowers Risk of Type 2 Diabetes by 7%”. This study was conducted at the George Institute for International Health, University of Sydney, Australia. The researchers stated that there are several studies to prove that drinking coffee may lower the risk of developing type 2 Diabetes.During the study, the researchers resolved information from 18 studies on coffee and diabetes.
They also analyzed another 13 studies that includes data on decaffeinated coffee, tea drinking and diabetes. When all the information, from each study was combined, they out that each additional cup of coffee drunk per day was accompanied with a 7% lower risk of diabetes. People who drunk three to four cups of coffee per day had about a 25% lower risk than those who didn’t drank two r fewer cups per day while people who drank decaffeinated coffee more than three to four cups per day had about a ne-third lower risk of having type 2 diabetes. The study shows that if tea drinkers drank more than three to four cups of tea per day had about one-fifth lower risk of diabetes. In a nutshell, the results shows that people who drank more cups of coffee, whether it’s decaffeinated or regular or tea will have a lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Therefore, the researchers conclude that they will advise the patients who are most at risk for diabetes mellitus should increase to consume a coffee and tea in addition to increase their levels of weight loss and physical activity.
Chapter III Methodology A. Research Design The researchers will gather unused Ampalaya seeds from clean market sites and homes. They will wash and dry it up under the heat of the sun for 2-3 sunny days. Then, they will peel off its seed coat, roast it for 25 minutes and grind it to powder form. After it is powdered, it will be brewed and distributed to different controls and treatments. Then it will be ready for sensory evaluations for different sampling techniques and rate its acceptability.
Problem Can Ampalaya seeds (Momordica charantia) be made into coffee?Hypothesis Ho: There is no difference between the commercial coffee and the Ampalaya seeds made into coffee. HA: There is a significant difference between the commercial coffee and the Ampalaya seeds made into coffee. B. Type Of Study This research study is quasi-experimental which focuses in making coffee from Ampalaya seeds. C. Independent And Dependent Variable The independent variable in this study is the Ampalaya seeds (Momordica charantia) coffee and the dependent variable is the sensory qualities of coffee (taste, color, odor, and texture). D.
Treatments Of The Study + Control| – Control| TreatmentA| TreatmentB| TreatmentC| Ampalaya coffee (tsp. )| 1| None| ? | ? | ? | Commercial coffee (tsp. )| None| 1| ? | ? | ? | Sugar (tsp. )| ? | ? | ? | ? | ? | Water (cup)| 1| 1| 1| 1| 1| Table 1- Different Treatments of Powdered Ampalaya Seeds This study has 2 treatments for control set-up (positive control – 100% Ampalaya coffee, negative control – 100% commercial coffee) and 3 treatments for the quasi-experimental set-up (TA – 75% Ampalaya coffee, 25% commercial coffee; TB – 50% Ampalaya coffee, 50% commercial coffee; TC – 25% Ampalaya coffee, 75% commercial coffee).E. Subjects / Samples This research study involves ESEP curriculum students from Grade 7 to 4th year. The researchers take only 30 respondents / samples from the whole population of ESEP curriculum.
F. Replications Per Treatment There were 5 treatments in this study (positive and negative control, treatment A, B, and C) and in every treatment, there were 30 replicates. G. Methodology Proper Table 2 – Process Flow Of The Conducted Study Preparation of Ingredients and Materials and Roasting of Seeds for 25 Minutes Heat the frying pan in preparation for the roasting of seeds.Then, prepare the bowl and the mortar and pestle. Wash the seeds until it is free from dirt and other physical elements aside from the seeds. Lastly, prepare the heater for the boiling of hot water and the 5 plastic cups.
Then, roast the washed, dried seeds in the pan for 25 minutes. Then cool it off. Drying of Ampalaya Seeds and Removing of Seed Coat The researchers will prepare the seeds which were gathered on the cleaner side of the market and will not be used by the vendors. The researchers wash the seeds, put it in a plate and placed it under the heat of the sun for 2 to 3 sunny days.Then, peel of the seed coat of the seeds with bare hands. Grinding of Seeds After the seeds were cooled off, place the roasted seeds in the mortar then grind it using the pestle until all of the seeds are powdered. Treatment Distribution for Ampalaya and Commercial Coffee In each of the grouped teacups for the five samples, each teacup is distributed based on the data in Table 1.
Sensory Evaluation The researchers conducted the evaluation through sensory qualities (taste, color, odor, and texture) and its acceptability. The treatments A to E are presented to the respondents for the evaluation based on the data on Table 3.Image 1Sample Questionnaire H. Statistical Treatment For Data Analysis The researchers used Chi-square Test in order to find the significant differences between treatments. They also used the mean in order to compute the average rating of sensory qualities (taste, color, odor, and texture) in every treatment. Chapter IV Results And Discussions This research study primarily aims to determine if Ampalaya Seeds (Momordica charantia) can be made into coffee. Based on our experiment, researchers can answer their objectives.
The data gathered were tabulated and evaluated as shown below.Graph 1 – Total Respondents Per Rating Of Overall acceptability For The Positive Control This graph is skewed to the left. That means that the respondents rate the pure Ampalaya coffee a little bit lowly. On the brighter side, the majority was clustered in the average part of the graph hence; it can be treated as acceptable. Rating| Sensory Qualities| | Taste| Color| Odor| Texture| 1| 1| 0| 6| 4| 2| 8| 18| 3| 14| 3| 2| 8| 12| 2| 4| 17| 4| 7| 7| 5| 12| 0| 2| 3| ?? | 30. 33| 37. 33| 10.
33| 15. 67| Table 3 – Total Respondents Per Rating Per Sensory Quality Of The Positive ControlGraph 2 – Total Respondents Per Rating Per Sensory Quality Of The Positive Control The table and graph above shows the relationship of the number of respondents and the rating they rate based on the coffee of the positive control. The graph conveys that the curve of the taste have the best rating results and color shows a more degrading result compared to the other variables. The solution performing the Chi-square Test of the Positive Control values for each of the sensory quality can be found at Appendix A. Comparing these results, we can evaluate: With the total number of respondents, n = 30, total data groups for the rating, k = 5, ? 0. 05, and d. f.
= k – 1 = 5 – 1 = 4, then the x? 0. 05= 9. 49. * Since x? taste(30. 33) ? ?? 0. 05(9. 49), then the rating distribution for the taste is significantly different to each other.
The curve of the taste variable is positively skewed in which the respondents have taken the liking to the taste of the Ampalaya coffee. * Since x? color(10. 33) ? ?? 0. 05(9. 49), then the rating distribution for the color is significantly different to each other. The curve of the color variable is negatively skewed in which the respondents may not have taken the liking to the color of the Ampalaya coffee. Since x? odor(37.
33) ? ?? 0. 05(9. 49), then the rating distribution for the color is significantly different to each other. The curve of the odor variable is concentrated more on the average side of the rating. Maybe the Ampalaya coffee is more of an odorless beverage because unlike the commercial coffee, it has an aroma because of carbohydrates which may be a little bit of lacking on the Ampalaya seeds. * Since x? texture(15. 67) ? ?? 0.
05(9. 49), then the rating distribution for the texture is significantly different to each other. The curve of the texture variable is negatively skewed.Maybe the physical appearance of the ground Ampalaya coffee powder is a lot different than the commercial coffee because of the differences of the type of fruit they produce, in which the coffee is a berry fruits so its color is a lot concentrated compared to the gourd family of Ampalaya which has a larger fruit. Rating| Taste| | + Control| – Control| Ta| Tb| Tc| 1| 1| 4| 0| 2| 1| 2| 8| 7| 9| 8| 12| 3| 2| 2| 6| 5| 4| 4| 17| 7| 8| 9| 8| 5| 2| 10| 7| 6| 5| Mean| 3. 37| 3. 4| 3.
43| 3. 30| 3. 13| Table 4 – Total Respondents Per Rating Per Treatment For The Taste Graph [ 3 ] – Mean Rating For The Taste Per TreatmentGraph 4 – Mean Rating For The Taste Per Treatment The graph above shows that the treatment that garnered the highest rating for the taste is TA, coffee of 75% Ampalaya coffee and 25% of the commercial coffee. Though the results were quite unexpected, the nearness of the rating between the pure commercial coffee and pure Ampalaya coffee is the most focused in this study so, we can say that Ampalaya coffee can be an alternative to a commercial coffee on the basis of its taste. Rating| Color| | + Control| – Control| Ta| Tb| Tc| 1| 0| 0| 1| 1| 0| 2| 18| 7| 10| 6| 11| 3| 8| 8| 9| 12| 7| 4| 4| 13| 10| 9| 12| | 0| 2| 0| 2| 0| Mean| 2. 53| 3. 33| 2.
93| 3. 17| 3. 03| Table 5 – Total Respondents Per Rating Per Treatment For The Color Graph 4 – Mean Rating For The Color Per Treatment The graph above shows that the treatment that garnered the highest rating for the color is the negative control, 100% commercial coffee. Though the results were quite expected, it means that the Ampalaya coffee can always be distinguished visually from the commercial coffee. Rating| Odor| | + Control| – Control| Ta| Tb| Tc| 1| 6| 0| 5| 6| 3| 2| 3| 1| 9| 5| 7| 3| 12| 6| 8| 10| 10| 4| 7| 15| 8| 3| 7| 5| 2| 8| 0| 6| 3| Mean| 2. 87| 4. 00| 2.
3| 2. 93| 3. 00| Table 6 – Total Respondents Per Rating Per Treatment For The Odor Graph 5 – Mean Rating For The Odor Per Treatment The graph above shows that the treatment that garnered the highest rating for the odor is the negative control, 100% commercial coffee. If the graph is analyzed, you can hypothesize that an amount of the Ampalaya coffee can greatly diminish the good aroma the commercial coffee currently has. Rating| Texture| | + Control| – Control| Ta| Tb| Tc| 1| 4| 1| 7| 2| 1| 2| 14| 3| 8| 4| 5| 3| 2| 0| 5| 7| 7| 4| 7| 12| 9| 14| 11| 5| 3| 13| 1| 3| 6| Mean| 2. 70| 4. 17| 2.
63| 3. 40| 3. 53|Table 7 – Total Respondents Per Rating Per Treatment For The Texture Graph 6 – Mean Rating For The Texture Per Treatment The graph above shows that the treatment that garnered the highest rating for the texture is still the negative control, 100% commercial coffee. Though the results are quite expected, if the graph is analyzed, there is a really much big difference on the texture dealt on the brewing of an Ampalaya coffee and those results are not quite on the liking of the respondents, hence this data might become one of the reasons on why Ampalaya seeds might not be a good alternative of the commercial coffee.But on the other hand, it might become another beverage like a medicinal tea. Rating| Control| Quasi-experimental| | + Control| – Control| TA| TB| TC| 1| 4| 2| 6| 5| 5| 2| 12| 4| 9| 5| 6| 3| 10| 9| 9| 12| 8| 4| 3| 14| 4| 5| 10| 5| 1| 1| 2| 3| 1| Table 8-Total Respondents Per Rating Per Treatment For Overall Acceptability Graph 7- Total Respondents Per Rating Per Treatment For Overall Acceptability With all the results obtained, expectedly, the commercial coffee achieved the highest overall acceptability among the different treatments.If the curves are trend lined, Graph 8 – Trend Lines For The Total Respondents Per Rating Per Treatment For Overall Acceptability In this graph, it is clearly shown that the positive control has the lowest slope among the treatments, hence; Ampalaya seeds may not be a good alternative for the commercial coffee on the basis of overall acceptability of the respondents.
Chapter V Summary, Conclusion And Recommendations SUMMARY Coffee alternatives have been famous last two decades due to economic crisis and experimentations for health and medical benefits.Ampalaya is a crawling vine that grows mostly on tropical countries like Philippines. It is said to be rich in iron, potassium, beta-carotene and other nutrients. Any seeds that are edible when powdered can be used as an alternative source for coffee. The general objective of the study is to determine if Ampalaya (Momordica Charantia) seeds can be made into coffee. This research can play a significant role in replacing the generic coffee’s market cost to affordability and medical benefits. It can also conserve unused or to-be-thrown away seeds of Ampalaya.
The researchers focus in making coffee out of Ampalaya (Momordica Charantia) seeds and in the sensory qualities (taste, color, odor and texture) of Ampalaya coffee in comparison to commercial coffee. First, the researchers gathered unused Ampalaya seeds from clean market sites and homes. They will wash and dry it up under the heat of the sun for 2-3 sunny days. Then, they will peel off its seed coat, roast it for 25 minutes and grind it to powder form. After it is powdered, it will be brewed and distributed to different controls and treatments.Then it will be ready for sensory evaluation for different sampling technique and rate its acceptability. CONCLUSION Therefore the researchers conclude that: * The overall acceptability of Ampalaya coffee is slightly acceptable.
* There are significant difference in every treatment in terms of taste, color, odor and texture. In taste, the positive control (Ampalaya Coffee) got the highest mean rating among the 5 treatments while in color, odor and texture the negative control (Commercial Coffee) got the highest mean rating. * In overall acceptability of groups or set-ups, the negative control is the highest among the 5 treatments.RECOMMENDATIONS If the researchers were given a chance to remake this research, the researchers should gather the Ampalaya seeds at the same plantation, same stem and at the same age. After the researchers have gathered the seed, it should be simultaneously placed it in a plate and dried under the heat of the sun for 2-3 days. The Ampalaya seeds should also be roasted together for 25 minutes. And the researchers hoped that they have a machine in grinding the Ampalaya seeds so that the Ampalaya coffee will have a tiny particle.
Appendix Appendix A Taste x2=i=0n(fo-fe)2fe x2=1-626+8-626+2-626+(17-6)26+(2-6)26 2=(-5)26+(2)26+(-4)26+(11)26+(-4)26 x2=25+4+16+121+166 x2=30. 33 Color x2=i=0n(fo-fe)2fe x2=(0-6)26+(18-6)26+(8-6)26+(4-6)26+(0-6)26 x2=(-6)26+(12)26+(2)26+(-2)26+(-6)26 x2=36+144+4+4+366 x2=37. 33 Odor x2=i=0n(fo-fe)2fe x2=(6-6)26+(3-6)26+(12-6)26+(7-6)26+(2-6)26 x2=(0)26+(-3)26+(6)26+(1)26+(-4)26 x2=0+9+36+1+166 x2=10. 33 Texture x2=i=0n(fo-fe)2fe x2=(4-6)26+(14-6)26+(2-6)26+(7-6)26+(3-6)26 x2=(4)26+(64)26+(16)26+(1)26+(9)26 x2=4+64+16+1+96 x2=15. 67 Appendix B Taste + Control X= i=0nXin X= 10130 X=3. 37 – Control X= i=0nXin X= 10230 X=3. 40 Treatment A X= i=0nXin X= 10330 X=3.
3 Treatment B X= i=0nXin X= 9930 X=3. 30 Treatment C X= i=0nXin X= 9430 X=3. 13 Color + Control X= i=0nXin X= 7630 X=2. 53 – Control X= i=0nXin X= 10030 X=3. 33 Treatment A X= i=0nXin X= 8830 X=2. 93 Treatment B X= i=0nXin X= 9530 X=3. 17 Treatment C X= i=0nXin X= 9130 X=3.
03 Odor + Control X= i=0nXin X= 8630 X=2. 87 – Control X= i=0nXin X= 12030 X=4. 00 Treatment A X= i=0nXin X= 7930 X=2. 63 Treatment B X= i=0nXin X= 8830 X=2. 93 Treatment C X= i=0nXin X= 9030 X=3. 00 Texture + Control X= i=0nXin X= 8130 X=2. 70 – Control X= i=0nXin X= 12530 X=4.
17 Treatment A X= i=0nXin X= 7930X=2. 63 Treatment B X= i=0nXin X= 10230 X=3. 40 Treatment C X= i=0nXin X= 10630 X=3. 53 BIBLIOGRAPHY * Lamanilao, Ma. Liza and Sejalbo, Venus. “Make/Making Ampalaya Seed Coffee and Polvoron”, <http://www. foodrecap.
net/recipe/ampaya-coffee-pulvoron/>. * Huxley, Rachel and Dphil, et al. “Coffee, Decaffeinated Coffee and Tea Consumption in Relation to Incident Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus” <http://archinte. jamanetwork. com/article. aspx? articleid=773949#>. * Huxley, Rachel, DPhil.
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