Charles Dickens Oliver Twist
A Study of Child Abuse Reflected in Oliver Twist by Charles Dickens. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background of The Problem * Child abuse in general * DIKAITKAN DG AHLI * Child abuse in specific novel B. Research Problem * What kinds of child abuse are found in Oliver Twist in Charles Dikens? * How are the causes of child abuse in the novel? * Read, identification, dikutip, diuraikan CHAPTER II REVIEW of RELATED and THEORIES A. Literary appreciation * Sociology of literature. Difinisi tp dikutib. * Review of the related teoris (tinjauan pustaka), membahas tentang batasan-batasan dr judul yg dibuat
B. Child abuse * Kinds of Child abuse * The causes of child abuse CHAPTER III DISCUSSION AND FINDING (MENJAWAB PERTANYAAN PADA B) Aplikasi. Hal dan ditulis 1 paragraf Ditulis Dari kutipan di atas oliver menglami child abused berupa …. yaitu diberi , dimsukkan dlm ruangan sempitmakan anjing This chapter, the writers would like to discuss the problem. They are kinds and causes of film. Related to the novel. CHAPTER IV * Conclution * Reference CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION This chapter consists of two sub chapters. They are the background of the problem and research of the problem.
The complete discussion can be seen below. A. The Background of the Problem What is child abuse? The writers said that the child abuse is the acts or treatments of the adult to the children that cause a harm to them or even the death, even the careless parents can be one of example of the child abuse. There are two effects that happened to child-abuse’s child. They are psychology and sociology. The parents who mock their children that is one of the example of psychological and it also can cause the children unconfident in the society.
Child abuse is the physical, sexual or emotional mistreatment or neglect of a child or children. Child abuse can occur in a child’s home, or in the organizations, schools or communities the child interacts with. There are four major categories of child abuse: neglect, physical abuse, psychological or emotional abuse, and sexual abuse. (www. wikipedia. org). A broad definition of child abuse implies purposeful and serious injury inflicted upon a child by a caregiver. (John Mersch, MD, FAAP).
The Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA) defines child abuse and neglect as: Any recent act or failure to act on the part of a parent or caretaker, which results in death. From the main character in the novel of Oliver Twist also mengalami also experienced the child abused. For example: * At the workhouse when dinner, Oliver needs some more food but the master quickly hit Oliver with the ladle. * In the stone cellar Oliver was given some food by a servant girl. His food turned out to be what the dog had left that morning. * At the undertaker’s Noah moked Oliver about his mother.
Oliver was angry and hit Noah. Noah screamed loudly; mrs. Sowerbury came and hit Oliver hard. etc Because of that the writers interested to write or analize the child abused that happened to the main character of Oliver Twist Novel by Charles Dikens. B. Research Problem * What kinds of child abuse are found in Oliver Twist in Charles Dikens? * How are the causes of child abuse in the novel? CHAPTER II This chapter reviews of the related theories of child abused. A. Literary appreciation There are four categories of child abused. They are physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse and neglect.
First is physical abuse may involve hitting, shaking, throwing, poisoning, burning or scalding, drowning, suffocating or otherwise causing physical harm to a child. It may also be caused when a parent or carer fabricates symptoms of, or induces illness in a child. Second is emotional abuse. Emotional abuse is the persistent emotional ill treatment of a child such as to cause severe and persistent effects on the child? s emotional development, and may involve: * Conveying to a child that she or he is worthless, unloved, inadequate, or valued only insofar as she or he meets the needs of another person. Imposing developmentally inappropriate expectations e. g. interactions beyond the child? s developmental capability, overprotection, limitation of exploration and learning, preventing the child from participation in normal social interaction * Causing a child to feel frightened or in danger e. g. witnessing domestic violence, seeing or hearing the ill treatment of another * Exploitation or corruption of a child Some level of emotional abuse is involved in most types of ill treatment of children, though emotional abuse may occur alone.
Third is sexual abused. Sexual abuse involves forcing or enticing a child to take part in sexual activities, including prostitution, whether or not she or he is aware of what is happening. Activities may involve physical contact, including penetrative and non-penetrative acts. ?Penetrative acts? include ? rape? (forced penetration of vagina, anus or mouth with a penis) and ? assault by penetration? (sexual penetration of vagina or anus of a child with a part of the body or an object). Sexual activities may also include non-contact activities, e. g. nvolving a child in looking at / production of abusive images, watching sexual activities or encouraging her/him to behave in sexually inappropriate ways. It may include use of photos, pictures, cartoons, literature or sound recordings via internet, books, magazines, audio cassettes, tapes or CDs. Children under sixteen years of age cannot lawfully consent to sexual intercourse, although in practice may be involved in sexual contact to which, as individuals, they have agreed. A child of under thirteen is considered in law incapable of providing consent.
Fourt is neglect. Neglect involves the persistent failure to meet a child? s basic physical and/or psychological needs, likely to result in the serious impairment of the child? s health and development. Neglect may occur during pregnancy as a result of maternal substance misuse. Once the child is born, neglect may involve failure to: * Provide adequate food, clothing or shelter (including exclusion from home or abandonment) * Protect from physical and emotional harm or danger * Meet or respond to basic emotional needs Ensure adequate supervision including the use of adequate care-takers * Ensure access to appropriate medical care or treatment * Ensure that her/his educational needs are met * Ensure her / his opportunities for intellectual stimulation are met Physical abuse Physical abuse involves physical aggression directed at a child by an adult. Most nations with child-abuse laws consider the deliberate infliction of serious injuries, or actions that place the child at obvious risk of serious injury or death, to be illegal. Beyond this, there is considerable variation.
The distinction between child discipline and abuse is often poorly defined. Cultural norms about what constitutes abuse vary widely: among professionals as well as the wider public, people do not agree on what behaviors constitute abuse.  Some professionals claim that cultural norms that sanction physical punishment are one of the causes of child abuse, and have undertaken campaigns to redefine such norms.  Sexual abuse Main articles: Child sexual abuse and child-on-child sexual abuse Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a form of child abuse in which an adult or older adolescent abuses a child for sexual stimulation. 10] Forms of CSA include asking or pressuring a child to engage in sexual activities (regardless of the outcome), indecent exposure of the genitals to a child, displaying pornography to a child, actual sexual contact with a child, physical contact with the child’s genitals, viewing of the child’s genitalia without physical contact, or using a child to produce child pornography.  Selling the sexual services of children may be viewed and treated as child abuse with services offered to the child rather than simple incarceration. 14] Effects of child sexual abuse include guilt and self-blame, flashbacks, nightmares, insomnia, fear of things associated with the abuse (including objects, smells, places, doctor’s visits, etc. ), self-esteem issues, sexual dysfunction, chronic pain, addiction, self-injury, suicidal ideation, somatic complaints, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, other mental illnesses (including borderline personality disorder and dissociative identity disorder, propensity to re-victimization in adulthood, bulimia nervosa, physical injury to the child, among other problems. 21] Approximately 15% to 25% of women and 5% to 15% of men were sexually abused when they were children.  Most sexual abuse offenders are acquainted with their victims; approximately 30% are relatives of the child, most often brothers, fathers, mothers, uncles or cousins; around 60% are other acquaintances such as friends of the family, babysitters, or neighbours; strangers are the offenders in approximately 10% of child sexual abuse cases.  In over one-third of cases, the perpetrator is also a minor. 27] Psychological/emotional abuse Main article: Emotional abuse Out of all the possible forms of abuse, emotional abuse is the hardest to define. It could include name-calling, ridicule, degradation, destruction of personal belongings, torture or killing of a pet, excessive criticism, inappropriate or excessive demands, withholding communication, and routine labeling or humiliation.  Victims of emotional abuse may react by distancing themselves from the abuser, internalizing the abusive words, or fighting back by insulting the abuser.
Emotional abuse can result in abnormal or disrupted attachment development, a tendency for victims to blame themselves (self-blame) for the abuse, learned helplessness, and overly passive behavior.  Neglect Main article: Child neglect The continuous refusal of a child’s basic needs is considered chronic neglect.  There are many effects of child neglect, such as children not being able to interact with other children around them. C. Research Problem The writers would like to formulate two problems their are