Indians and Africans) b) Factors that hindered unity among the Europeans in America 1. Puritans carved tight, pious, and relatively democratic communities of small family farms A homogeneous world compared to most southern colonies 2. Anglicans built plantations along the coast Where they lorded over a labor force of black slaves Looked down upon the poor white farmers who settled the backcountry 3. Diversity reigned in middle colonies Well-to-do merchants put their stamp on New York City In the countryside sprawling estates were interspersed with modest homesteads 4.
Within Individual colonies, conflicts festered over economic Interests, ethnic rivalries, ND religious practices 5. All the clashes made it difficult for colonists to imagine that they were a single people with a common density c) General issues that led colonists to rebel against Brittany 1. The stable arrangement between the colonists and Brittany began to crumble, a victim of the Imperial rivalry between France and Brittany 2. Once the French were driven from the North American continent, the colonists no longer needed the British for protection 3.
The British government made the choice of imposing taxes on colonies that had been accustomed to answering mainly to their win colonial assemblies 4. Issues of taxation, self-rule, and trade restrictions brought the crisis of Imperial authority to a head II. The Shaping of North America: Major geographical features and the importance of the Great Ice Age a) The Rockies, the Sierra Nevada, and Coast Ranges – “American Mountains” b) The continent was anchored In its Northeastern corner by the massive Canadian Shield c) The “tidewater” region creased by many river valleys. Loped gently upward to the timeworn ridges of the Appalachians d) “Roof of America” – the land fell off Jaggedly onto the intermediation Great Basin e) The valleys of Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers and the Willamette- Peugeot Sound trough seamed the Interiors of present-day California, Oregon, and Washington f) When the glaciers finally retreated, they left the North American landscape transformed g) The weight of the ice mantle had depressed the level of the Canadian Shield h) The melting ice had scoured away the shield’s topsoil, pitting its rocky surface with thousands of shallow depressions into which the melting glaciers flowed to form lakes l) Deprived of both Inflow and ranging, the giant lake became a gradually shrinking Inland sea. It grew Increasingly saline, slowly evaporated, and left an arid, mineral-rich desert Ill. Peopling the FIFO a) How the ancestors of the American Indians Journeyed to America and why 1 .
Some Early peoples may have reached the Americas in crude boats but most probably came by land 2. As the sea level dropped, it exposed a land bridge connecting Eurasia with North America 3. Probably following migratory herds of game, ventured small bands of nomadic Asian hunters b) Evidence that Indians of Central and South America were advanced 1 . Over the centuries they split into countless tribes, evolved more than 2,000 separate languages, and developed many diverse religions, cultures, and ways of life 2. Their advanced agricultural practices, based primarily on the cultivation of maize 3. These peoples built elaborate cities and carried on far-flung commerce 4.
Talented mathematicians, they made strikingly accurate astronomical observations 5. The Aztec sought the favor of the gods by offering human sacrifices Cutting out the hearts of he chests of living victims, who were often captives conquered in battle IV. The Earliest Americans a) Agriculture, especially corn growing, accounted for the size and sophistication of the Native American civilizations in Mexico and South America b) The Nazis built an elaborate pueblo of more than six hundred interconnected rooms c) Maize, strains of beans, and squash made possible “three-sister” farming, with beans growing on the trellis of cornstalks and squash covering the planting mounds to retain moisture in the soil 1 .
This produced some of the highest population densities on the continent d) In the northeastern woodlands, the Iroquois Confederacy plopped the political and organizational skills to sustain a robust military alliance that menaced its neighbors e) The native peoples of North America were living in small, scattered, and impermanent settlements f) Women tended to the crops, while men hunted, fished, gathered fuel, and cleared fields for planting g) The Native Americans had neither the desire nor the means to manipulate nature aggressively, they revered the physical world and endowed nature with spiritual properties V. Indirect Discoverers of the New World a) Probably the first Europeans to “discover” America Blond-bearded Norse seafarers room Scandinavia, who had chanced upon the northeastern shoulder of North America – however, no strong nation-state, yearning to expand, supported these venturesome voyagers. Their flimsy settlements consequently were soon abandoned, and their discovery was forgotten b) Christian Crusaders – European warriors who indirectly discovered America because of Rupee’s craving for exotic goods VI.
Europeans Enter Africa – Setting the Stage for the “Discovery’ of America a) Marco Polo: an Italian adventurer; he must be regarded as an indirect discoverer of he New World, for his book, with its description of rose- tinted pearls and golden pagodas, stimulated European desires for a cheaper route to the treasures of the East b) The Portuguese not only developed the caravel, but they had discovered that they could return to Europe by sailing northwesterly from the African coast toward the Azores, where the prevailing westward breezes would carry them home c) The participants of the earliest African slave trade were Arab flesh merchants and Africans themselves. 1 . Slave brokers deliberately separated persons from the same rib’s and mixed unlike people together to frustrate organized resistance d) Portuguese: they built their own systematic traffic in slaves to work the sugar 1. Bartholomew Aids rounded the southernmost tip of the “Dark Continent” 2. Vases dad Gamma finally reached India and returned home with a small but tantalizing cargo of Jewels and spices VI’.
Columbus Comes upon a New World a) In Spain, a modern national state was taken shape, with the unity, wealth and power to shoulder the formidable tasks of discovery, conquest, and colonization b) The renaissance in the fourteenth century nurtured an ambitious spirit of optimism ND adventure – printing presses facilitated the spread of scientific knowledge. The mariner’s compass eliminated some of the uncertainties odd sea travel c) Columbus’ voyages to America 1. Where in America? – An island in the Bahamas 2. Columbus was a “successful failure” because when seeking a new water route to the fabled Indies, he in fact bumped into an enormous land barrier blocking the ocean pathway d) Columbus’ discovery convulsed four continents: Europe, Africa, and the Americas which emerged and interdependent global economic system 1 . Europe provided the markets, the capital, and the technology 2. Africa furnished the labor 3. The New World offered its raw materials VIII.
When Worlds Collide: “Columbian Exchange” a) Europeans found iguanas and rattlesnakes along with tobacco, beans, maize, tomatoes, and potatoes – eventually revolutionized the international economy as well as the European diet b) The Europeans brought cattle, swine, horses, sugarcane, and the seeds of Kentucky Bluegrass, dandelions, and daisies – the Native Americans adopted the horse, transforming their cultures into highly mobile, wide-ranging hunter societies c) The Europeans brought smallpox, yellow fever, and malaria to the New World, which would quickly devastate the Native Americans. The disease syphilis was brought to the Old World. This had injected the sexually transmitted disease into Europe for the first time. ‘X. The Spanish Conquistadors a) Treaty of Tortillas – divided the “heathen lands” of the New World between Portugal and Spain b) Important Spanish Explorers 1. Vases Nuke Balboa hailed as the discoverer of the pacific ocean 2. Ferdinand Magellan completed the first circumnavigation of the globe 3. Juan Pence De Leon explored Florida 4.
Francisco Coronado went from Arizona to Kansas, while discovering the Grand Canyon and massive herds of Bison 5. Hernandez De Sotto discovered and crossed the Mississippi River 6. Francisco Pizzeria crushed the Incas of Peru and added a huge hoard of booty to Spanish coffers c) Because of the Spanish conquests, the world economy was transformed – it led to more money in Europe which led to the spread of commerce and manufacturing d) Encomia system – it allowed the government to “commend” or give, Indians to certain colonists in return to try to Christianize them X. The Conquest of Mexico language of the powerful Aztec rulers of the great empire in the highlands of central
Mexico b) Cortes’ incentive was that he only wanted gold c) Mastectomy believed that Cortes was the god Sequestrate d) Ethnocentric – it amazed the Spanish because of how large and beautiful it was: with 300,000 inhabitants spread over ten square miles; it was surrounded floating gardens odd extraordinary beauty e) Enoch Tries: (Sad Night) the Aztec attacked, driving the Spanish down the causeways from Ethnocentric in a frantic, bloody retreat f) Impact of conquest of Aztec: 1. – : Native population of Mexico decreased rapidly due to disease 2. +: Crops and animals were brought to the Americas as well as language, laws, customs, and religion g) Did De la Razz – the birthday off wholly new race of people X’.
Spanish Conquistadors (“Makers of America”) a) Conquistadores were nobles – about half were professional soldiers and sailors; the rest were peasants, artisans, and members of the middling class b) Personal motives – some wanted royal titles and favors, others wanted to ensure God’s favor, some hoped to escape dubious pasts, and some Just wanted adventure c) Conquistadores were armed with horses and gunpowder, as well as preceded by asses; this helped them overpower the Indians d) Most conquistadores did not strike it rich because even if an expedition captured exceptionally rich booty, it was not divided evenly e) Messiest – the “new race” formed a cultural and a biological bridge between Latin America’s European and Indian races XII. The Spread of Spanish America a) The upstart English sent John Callout to explore the northeastern coast of North America b) Jacques Carrier Journeyed hundreds of miles up the SST.
Lawrence River c) With the intention of protection, the Spanish began to fortify and settle in the North American borderlands d) In the Battle of Coma in 1599, the Spanish severed one foot of each survivor e) During the Pope’s Rebellion in 1680, the pueblo rebels destroyed every Catholic church in the province and killed a score of priests and hundreds of Spanish settlers f) Father Junipers Sera founded at San Diego the first of a chain of twenty-one missions g) The “Black Legend” – means killing for Christ: the authors describe it as a false concept. They say that despite the mass killings, the Spanish did so many other good things that the good out weighs the bad.