Calligraphy in Islam
Calligraphy is the form of art which denote signs and letters in an expressive form, it’s a form of visual art which was developed in western Europe by monks about 1500 years before. It is a painting which is helps to express emotions through designs and show the intellectual skills of an individual. it is Greek word defined by greek roots Kalli meaning beautiful and attractive and gharphia refers to writing. The aim of this proposal is to discuss the role of calligraphy in islam and different types of calligraphy. Calligraphy is the tongue of the hand, the delight of the conscience, the ambassador of the mind, the inheritor of the thought, the weapon of knowledge, the companion of absent friend, the converser with them over long distances, the depository of secrets, and register of events. ” – Ibrahim Ibn Muhammad Ash-Shaybani Many religions have made the use of art to portrait their core doctrine. Islam has used the shapes and sizes of word and letter in calligraphy which is a paramount form of art for Islamic visual expression and inspiration. It portrait the cultural values of Muslims.
The Islamic calligraphy is a hallmark of most muslim societies it stands out with other calligraphic tradition with flexibility and its applicable to any decorative purpose, from the 8th century it became more standardized and bonding with Muslim identity far more firmly than any writing tradition. The tools used by calligrapher are unique which includes reeds and brush pens, scissors, a knife for cutting the pens, an ink pot, and a sharpening tool, The traditional way to hold the pen,” according to Safadi, “is with middle finger, forefinger, and thumb well spaced out along the (pen’s) shaft.
Only the lightest possible pressure is applied. ” The most admirable reeds were native to the coastal lands of the Persian Gulf. Qalams the most valued objects are stipulated across the entire Muslim world. An accomplished and handy scribe would require different qalams in order to achieve different degrees of fineness. Inks used are of various colors but the ink most used is black and brown, since there acuteness and consistencies can be altered, Many of the calligraphers are provide training on how to prepare ink while other implies that their recipe is a secret.
Although techniques differ from one place to another place, most inks were based on soot or lamp-black mixed with water and gum-Arabic. Other ingredients are indigo, minced gall-nuts, and henna. The final stage of preparation involved straining the ink through silk. Also, the ink might be perfumed if desired. There are different kinds of calligraphy restricted to Islam the most common among them is Kufic. It has amalgamation of square and angular lines on one end, and compact bold circular forms on the other.
It reached perfection in the late 8 century and became to only script to write Quran for following 300 years. Taliq calligraphy which was developed in Iran in the 10th century created by Hassan Ibn Husayn but due to great improvement by abd-ul-malk its usually affiliated with him. It is written with thick nipped pen with cater corner cuts, it’s a combination of short thin vertical with broad horizontal whose natural length is exaggerated wherever possible and especially at the end of work. Thuluth is medieval Islamic style of handwritten alphabet.
It’s written on principium that one third of each letter slopes. It is gigantic and fancy calligraphy script which is often used for titles rather than the long text. The letters are round and maybe written in line so close that the element of letters intersect with each other. Many of its discripence are found on architectural monuments as well as on glass, metalwork, textiles, and wood. Naskh which means “copying,” is like a run on a mill which was used in ordinary correspondence and the production of literary works.
It has a regular appearance. This calligraphic script of Ibn Muqla was escorted to excellence by Ibn Al-Bawwaba, a house decorator who turned his hand to calligraphy. In 10th century it was used for writing the Quran and this art never ended in Persia However, it is Mirza Ahmad Nayrizi, in the early 18th century who is regarded as the last great master of naskh. There were many late development in the Calligraphy. The Safavid dynasty in 1502 produced an eye opening masterpieces of Islamic art.
During the era of Shah Isma’il and his successor Shah Tahmasp (1524-1576), the Ta’liq script was invented and developed into a widely used native script which led to the invention of a lighter and more elegant version called Nasta’liq. The word Nasta’liq is a compound word derived from Naskh and Ta’liq The Mughals lived and reigned in India from 1526 to 1858. This dynasty was the greatest, richest, and longest lasting Muslim dynasty to rule India. They produced some finest art work in the history. Nasta’liq, Naskh, and Thuluth were adopted by the Muslim calligraphers during this era.
The passionate development of calligraphy in India led to the creation of new versions of Naskh and Thuluth. These Mughal scripts are thicker and bolder, the letters are widely spaced, and the curves are more rounded. Calligraphy was extremely appreciated in this era especially when the Taj Mahal was built. One name remains closely associated with It with the superb calligraphic inscriptions displayed in the geometric friezes on the white marble — that is the name of the ingenious calligrapher Amanat Khan, whose real name was Abd ul-Haq.
It can be proven that the fact, that the Arabic calligraphy has more strongly associated with Islam than the Arabic language itself. That is, even illiterate people who could not conceive either spoken or written Arabic knew immediately when they were in a Muslim environment when they saw the Arabic script clearly displayed in calligraphy. This rare function of the Islamic calligraphy continues to the present day.
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