Posted: June 25th, 2021
So naturally, if we did not seek these ends, it will lose prescriptive force upon the ends a person seeks. Thus a moral rule is not contingent upon ends. Therefore a moral rule must prescribe to us independently of our ends, that is categorical. B. For a rule is moral rule, it must be consistent, universalism. Thus, such a rule can be prescribed as a guide to everyone’s conduct without involving a self-contradiction. Such a rule has a general applicability almost without exception.
If any exception at all Is to be made, then It Is to be made exceptionally. The possibility of an exception should be extremely remotest. C. For a rule to be a moral rule, It must be such that, If all men were to follow it, they should treat each other as ends in themselves and never as means only. D. For a rule to be a moral rule, it must be a capable of being self- imposed by the will of each person when he is universally legislating.
His argument for the existence of God follows: We all have a sense of innate moral awareness – from this we are under obligation to be virtuous An ‘average’ level of virtue is not enough, we are obliged to aim for the highest standard possible True virtue should be rewarded with happiness There Is an Ideal state where human virtue and happiness are united – this Kant called the ‘ Osmium Bonus’ Moral statements are prescriptive – ‘ought’ Implies ‘can’ Humans can achieve virtue In a bedtime but It Is beyond us to ensure we are rewarded with happiness.
Therefore there must be a God who has the power to ensure that virtue and happiness coincide in an afterlife. Moral qualities exist as separate entities. We are contingent and flawed beings and cannot achieve osmium bonus (HIGHEST MORAL GOOD) Osmium bonus must be achievable Morally necessary to postulate God’s existence.
God is required for morality to reach its end Kant rejects PURE reason – Critique of Pure reason (1791) Develops the Idea of PRACTICAL reason – a common sense approach, based on a reflection of what It means to be human Four premises of practical reason All human beings except that we ought to be as good as possible (osmium bonus) [think about ‘Inhumane’; being a human being implies being “good” ” Ought implies can therefore osmium we can think of must include two things VIRTUE + HAPPINESS We can be obligated ONLY to be virtuous (practical reasons would suggest that we cannot have an obligation to be happy – it does not make sense to say you MUST be happy or you OUGHT to be happy . Three postulates of practical reason If we have an obligation, this implies a responsibility; this implies human freedom
Happiness and virtue are NOT necessarily aligned with this life; this implies that there is life after death (where happiness is aligned with virtue) If happiness is to be aligned with virtue, then there must be some mechanism, force, or person that makes this happen – this is God. I. E. There must be some potent thing / person / force that aligns happiness with virtue ” Therefore, it is morally necessary to assume the existence of God. ” EMMANUEL KANT: Cant’s argument is inductive and a posteriori because his premises is based on a series of observations and seek to prove God’s existence with high probability. Criticisms of Kant: Why must virtue be rewarded with happiness? Morals are clearly inconsistent from the TO to the NT E. G.
In TO we have a God who orders a massacre through Joshua but in the NT we have the forgiveness and agape of Jesus. Morality could be man made? This argument only strengthens a belief in God for those who already believe? Our conscience could be part of our moral upbringing? There is no proof of objective laws actually existing. The existence of morality may be due to a being that is not God, or at least the Jude – Christian God. Objective laws exist through human construct not from God. Kant: The Moral Order Having mastered epistemology and metaphysics, Kant believed that a rigorous application of the same methods of reasoning would yield an equal success in dealing with the problems of moral philosophy.
Thus, in the Kristin deer practices Overturn (Critique of Practical Reason) (1788), he proposed a “Table of the Categories of Freedom in Relation to the Concepts of Good and Evil,” using the familiar logical distinctions as the basis for a catalog of synthetic a priori Judgments that have bearing on the evaluation of human action, and declared that only two things inspire nine awe: “Deer bestir Hummel јbeer Mir undo ads moralistic Sestets in Mir” (“the starry sky above and the moral law within”). Kant used ordinary moral notions as the foundation for a derivation of this moral law in his Grueling cur Metaphysic deer Sixteen (Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals) (1785). Morality and Peace: Cant’s interest in moral matters was not exclusively theoretical. In Die Metaphysic deer Sixteen(Metaphysics of Morals) (1797) he worked out the practical application of the categorical imperative in some detail, deriving a fairly comprehensive catalog of pacific rules for the governance of social and personal morality.
What each of us must actually will as universal, Kant supposed, is a very rigid system of narrowly prescribed conduct. In Gum Gwenn Friend (On Perpetual Peace) (1795), Kant proposed a high-minded scheme for securing widespread political stability and security. If statesmen would listen to philosophers, he argued, we could easily achieve an international federation of independent republics, each of which reduces agrees to be governed by the notion of universal hospitality. SUPPORTERS OF MORAL LAW THEORY: Based largely on the 4th Aquinas way – There Anton be an infinite regress of goodness. It must have a purely good source. H. P Owen – “It is impossible to think of a command without also thinking of a commander” Moral laws cannot explain themselves.
Assume objective moral laws exist Cardinal Newman – “If the cause of these emotions doesn’t belong to the visible world the objects to which the perception is directed must be supernatural and divine” Conscience must have come from somewhere – Voice of God. C. S Lewis – “l think Kant argues that our sense or morality implies that the world is ordered in a moral way – and this in turn implies the existence of God. . Explain the term social orientation of business? NAS. : A business perspective whereby a company operates in the best interests of the society as a whole. For example, a company that sells food items with ingredients that are sustainable farmed.
Social orientation refers to the theory that explains why a person has particular behaviors, relationships and adaptations with other people and/or society in general. Also referred to as social dominance orientation in some disciplines, professionals use this theory to predict behaviors, particularly with inter- group attitudes and behaviors. In law, social orientation refers to taking into account the well-being of society in addition to customer satisfaction. In many cases, theorists use this philosophy to explain the support an individual gives to the dominance of another group based on demographic factors such as age, gender, race and religion.
This means social dominance orientation measures how much a person shows a preference for inequality when that inequality works in his group’s favor. In other words, those people who hold this preference believe in a system in which one or a small number of social groups dominate one or more social groups as the correct social order. In some cases, researchers have the ability to use social orientation theory in order to predict negative behaviors in some groups. The theory aims to help researchers understand the thought processes, particularly negative ones, with various social and demographic groups involved in different types of group interactions.
Many modern thinkers believe that business is something more than an economic institution. As such, it should not focus on attainment of economic goals. Minimization of return on investment is, no doubt, an important economic function of the business. But that cannot be treated as the sole objective or basic purpose of equines. A business is established basically in serving the society. The business basic purpose of business. A business is established basically in serving the society. The business, identifies the needs of the society and produces and supplies suitable goods and services to satisfy these needs. The business, however, does not do this free of cost.
It anticipates a return for rendering this useful service to the society. This return is its reward which is called profit. This profit can be looked as motivating reward offered by the society to the business rendering a useful service of satisfying very business is to offer a service to the society. When this service is useful and satisfactory, it yields profit for the business. Thus profit arrives in business at a later stage. Let is the outcome of business efficiency. Profit does not exist, in business, at its very inception. On the contrary an objective or purpose happens to exist prior to the activity. A purpose leads to an activity and not an activity leads to the purpose.
A purpose or on objective provides for an action, And obviously an expected reward cannot become substantial and valid cause of an action. For example, a student searing to learn more and more has an objective of acquiring more knowledge and becoming a knowledgeable person. During this process, he may get good marks in test and examination as reward for his continued and sincere study. But a good percentage cannot become a valid objective of making studies, Examination success alone cannot prove his depth of knowledge, assimilation, of knowledge, level of subject understanding as well as how he has internalized what he learned. Education, as we believe has an objective, scope and expectation beyond examinations.
A student is not supposed to be only an examine, but his true role is hat of the knowledge seeker. His examination success acts as an incentive, but does not replace his profound urge for knowledge which is the basic cause his learning efforts and therefore it is the primary motive of its labor for education. The above example applies to business quite suitably. The profit expectation cannot substitute service motive of business. The business man is entrusted the scarce resources of the society to make their productive use for the satisfaction of the needs of the society. This useful service which the business offers entitles it to expect some profit.
So a business makes a profit through service and not by way of neglecting and displacing the service aspect. Any business organization which has forgotten or ignored the service motto has not only lost its profit possibilities, but also brought its survival at a stake. One should always remember that we eat to live and do not live to eat. Likewise profit is essential for business survival and continuity, but profit is not sole and primary objective for which the business is run. As Peter Drunker has rightly put it there can be only one valid definition of business purpose and that is to create a customer and then as we try to create a want testifiers at the lowest price and attempt continued to raise and retain his satisfaction.
In essence, every business continuously strives to serve the customer in particular and the society in general in the best possible manner. It does this because this service- motto is the cause and basic purpose for which a business is always established and run. Factors affecting social orientation of an enterprise details are as below:- Promoters, Directors and Top Management: The values and vision of promoters and top management is a key influencing factor. Stakeholders: Attitude of various takeovers like shareholders, creditors, employees, etc. Also affect the social orientation of a company. Societal Factors: Social orientation could also be affected located in a poor community may be expected to contribute to the development of education facilities in the locality etc.
Industry and Trade Associations: They influence the behavior of firms by establishing professional and ethical codes and norms. Government and Laws: Laws to curb corruption, unfair practices, etc. And the government’s view of social responsibility also acts as an influencing factor. 3. Write the characteristics of values? NAS. The characteristics of values are as follows: 1. Values provide standards of competence and morality. Our moral standards are based on our value system. 2. Values are in fewer number. We do not have too many values. Rather, we have selected for few values. These selective values decide and determine our concept of virtuous life. 3. Values transcend specific objects, situations or persons. Values acts as a criterion.
This criterion of evaluation is applicable to all, irrespective of persons, situations or objects. For example, honesty, if taken up as value, any kind of dishonest; behavior by any person in any situation at any time comes objectionable. 4. Values are relatively permanent and resistance to change. Values describe the concept of the ideal for the individual. It explains what ought to be. And as such values are relatively stable and permanent. Values are in the form of strong belief in respect of an ideal situation in life and such strong beliefs or values are so deep rooted in individuals and societies that they are very difficult to change or eliminate. This does not mean that values never change.
Values too, change over time. However, the process of change is gradual and lengthier. Sometimes are as a exult of social crisis, the value systems undergo a change. 5. Values are at the core of personality. Values are the most powerful force driving decisions and actions and directing human behavior. As we have seen that whatever we decide and do is always compatible with our value system. Values contain normal and provide for us a list of doing and donor’s. They tell us what is permissible and what is not on the basis of standard for good, right and desirable. 6. Values carry a Judgments element. This judgment of desirable is subjective as well as objective.
That is subjective as they describe an experience which is personal. At the same time values are objective because they exist for all persons and through proper training such Judgment can be brought to a common standard. 7. Values have content as well as intensity and attributes. As such values are central to the core of a person, many a times we distinguish two persons from one another on the basis of their value systems and concept of values. People decide differently, express differently and are differently largely due to their different values. Values are central to individual personality. Values make each individual distinctive in terms of the thinking and expensiveness .
As values are Judgment of what ought to be; they describe our ideals and moral standards. This belief in ideals standard influence our complete behavior and guide all our actions across objects and situations. Values are central to our ethical perceptions. Values decide our criteria of right and wrong, good and bad, desirable and undesirable. From the value system emerges our moral standards. Simultaneously, we observe that our value system is widely influenced by the social and cultural norms. 8. Ethical Values: Business ethics are concerned with morality in its action are bond to have a direct impact on the wellbeing and welfare of the society.
Business affects society in terms of what products it supplies. Therefore, it is necessary that business community conduct its activities with self control, self check, and self scarifies. I. E. Acting with less concern for you than for the success of the Joint activity. And keeping always in mind the interest of the community at large signifies ethical values. 9. Relative term: Ethics is a relative term in the concept of morality and immorality. It differs from one individual to another or from society to society. What is moral to one may be immoral to another. 10. The interest of society: Business ethics implies that business should first do good to the society and then to itself.
Business is an important institution and has a social responsibility to protect the interest of all those groups who are directly or indirectly related to the organization like employees, shareholders and consumers etc. To contribute to the success of business. 11. Business social relationship: Business ethics set the terms and standards to understand the societal relationship of business. It indicates what society expects from business and what it thinks about the business. 12. Provides the ramekin: Like an individual, business is also bound by social rules and regulations. Business is expected to restrict its activities within the limits of social, legal, cultural, and economic environment. 13.
Facilitates protection of social groups: Business ethics give protection to consumers and other social groups such as shareholders, employees and the society at large. The business should give priority to social interest or social good. Such ethical approach creates good name, add status to business and helps in its growth and expansion. 14. Not against profit making: Business ethics is not against fair profit making. However, it is against making a profit by cheating and exploiting consumers, employees or investors. It supports expansion of business activities, but by fair means and not through illegal activities or corrupt practices. 15. Needs willing acceptance: Business ethics cannot be imposed by law or by force.
It must be accepted as self-discipline by businessmen. It should come from within. Businessmen should go for ethical trade practices on their own and not by force of law. 16. Code of conduct: Business ethics is a code of conduct. It tells what to do and what not to do for the welfare of the society. All genuineness must follow this code of conduct. 17. Based on moral and social values: Business ethics are based on moral and social values. It contains moral and social principles (rules) for doing business. This includes self-control, consumer protection and welfare, service to society, fair treatment to social groups, not to exploit others, etc. 18.
Gives protection to social groups: Business ethics give protection to different social groups such as consumers, employees, small businessmen, government, shareholders, creditors, etc. 19. Voluntary: Business ethics must be voluntary. The businessmen must accept business ethics on their own. Business ethics must be like self-discipline. It must not be enforced by law. 20. Requires education and guidance: Businessmen must be given proper education and guidance before introducing business ethics. The businessmen must be motivated to use business ethics. They must be informed about the advantages of using business ethics. Trade Associations and Chambers of Commerce must also play an active role in this matter. 21.
New concept: Business ethics are a newer concept. It is strictly followed only in Explain the two important criteria for promotions. NAS : The two important criteria for promotions are as follows: A. Seniority based promotions. B. Merits based promotions. Seniority refers to longevity on a Job or with an organization. In most of the organization seniority is taken up as an objective, dependable and non-controversial criterion for promotions. The advantages of seniority based on promotions make the following arguments prove ethically. A. It brings definite and certain in promotions. Everybody in the organization, thus knows how one will get promotion and when, B.
It removes suspicion about promotion-decisions and eliminates the possibilities of development of unethical practices for getting promotions. C. It pays consideration ND reward to the loyalty and longevity of the employee with the company. D. Even the trade unions may support seniority based on promotions because seniority or longevity of service is the visible, measurable objective and uncontroversial criterion and so there is very little chance of injustice to employee as there is no chance for subjective evaluation of the candidate. However, the seniority based promotions are not free from criticism. The critics make the following arguments against seniority as a good criterion for promotions:- 1 .
Seniority or longevity with the company may prove the candidate’s loyalty but not viability. A candidate cannot be assumed to be capable of handling the responsibilities of a higher post, simply because he/she is the senior employee in the lower cadre. 2. The seniority based promotion system discourages the ambitious, industrious and intelligent employee. Such employee, instead of waiting to become senior, may quit the organization in search of a better opportunity outside. Under such circumstances, the firm may face the problem of employee turnover and further the shortage of high quality manpower. 3. Seniority based promotions may kill the employee initiative and achievement drive.
Instead of making an outstanding and remarkable performance, people would concentrate on stocking up to the organization and making a longer tenure of service. 4. In such organizations, the employee may try to maintain their minimum performance level. So that they would not have to face any disciplinary action or lose their Job. They may shirk responsibility by making their conduct rule-bound, rather than end based. Naturally the employee’s potential may remain under utilized. Seniority as a singular criterion may injure the employee morale and productivity. 5. Seniority may be a confusing criterion. Which seniority will form the basis for promotion?
Is it the seniority in the entire organization or in the respective unit/ department or in the present cadre of the employee? These questions may give birth to friction and conflict. So the management has to define what is meant by continuous service and how it will decide seniority. After having analyzed the limitations and of seniority as a sole criterion for promotions and its ethical promotion implications, the management scholars promotions consider the performance and eligibility of the candidate and do Justice with the capable candidate. After all a promotion decision must take into account the candidate first ridicules oneself and then paralyses and injures the entire organization. 2.
Merit-based promotions develop an atmosphere of performance and productivity. It provides incentive for development and enhancement of capability. It induces people to work hard for personal growth. It develops a culture of progress, growth and commitment. The people in the organization are then are encourages to utilize them fullest potential in the best manner. This is always good and beneficial for the individual, organization and society in general. Promoting an incapable candidate is not only an injustice to the capable candidates, but is also a social sin. It initiates of deterioration. It suppresses human talent, achievement drives, sincere effort and urge for productivity-enhancing.
It neglects the principle of fairness and justice and slaps down the human dignity, The merit-based promotion observes the basic of fairness and making Justice if offers the individual what the individual deserves, it gives, what is due to the person. Unless one deserves something, one should not be desirous of the benefit. Capability is a very logical and Justifiable test or deciding whether the employee really deserves a promotion or not. Further the theory of capability-responsibility suggest that both these concepts go hand in hand. If one is capable then only he/she should be held responsible. Thus, no responsibility be assigned to any person who is incapable. The critics raise the following two objections against merit- based promotions. 1. It neglects the loyalty and seniority of a person. This may produce an adverse effect. The senior employee may quit the organization.
However, this fear is unrealistic. Because only the exceptional and extreme cases such things may happen. The employee takes up such a decision only when the employee feels strongly that he/ she is treated unfairly and unjustly. This injustice is felt when one does not get what is due to him/her. Every employee knows quite well one must always deserve something. One is entitled to get what be felt only when one is capable and senior and still does not get promotion. Such an employee will definitely feel insulted to work under someone who was previously him/her Junior. 2. Merit is very difficult to decide. The term is confusing and may lead to subjective interpretation.
This objection can be replied by precisely defining the concept of merit and by establishing a merit evaluation system. At the heart of the concept of merit is the capability of the person. The capability of an employee is to decide in the light of the duties and responsibilities interwoven in the Job. In order to find out whether a candidate is capable or not, ask a simple question- can she/he effectively and successfully fulfill the duties and responsibilities involved in a particular Job position? The reply to this question will also help us to enlist the qualities and qualification. If two or more candidates have equal merit, then the management should promote the one who is senior-most amongst them.
But seniority singularly and regardless of capability cannot be taken up as a Justifiable criterion for promotions. The Effects of Merit-Based Promotion Vs.. Seniority details are as follows: favoritism. Employers typically won’t have to worry about a newer worker coming in and quickly leapfrogging them to obtain a promotion simply because they are friends with an upper-level supervisor or because of the way they dress or that they are more effective at playing the game of corporate politics. Instead, workers have a sense that if they pay their dues, they will be rewarded at some point in the future. Workplace Harmony: Promotion based on seniority can also help maintain a more harmonious workplace.
Workers who know they need to put in the necessary time with the company before advancement opportunities present themselves are less likely to resent those who attained promotion because they worked for the organization longer. This can eliminate the backstabbing often associated with merit- based programs where employees may attempt to present themselves in the most favorable manner possible, sometimes by attempting to make coworkers look incompetent. Motivation Boost: A merit-based program, on the other hand, can revive motivation leading to increased productivity. Workers who recognize that the best performers are the ones who get ahead may put forth the extra effort they believe it takes to receive promotions.
For instance, salespeople who realize that a sales manager position is awarded to the person with the highest sales numbers may strive to produce the desired results, generating additional revenue for the company in the process. Reward for Ability: Workers possess varying levels of skills and abilities, and a merit-based program rewards those who may have the most to offer the organization in the long run. While tenured employees offer the benefit of greater experience, this does not necessarily equate with more ability. A less experienced worker possessing a greater flair for innovation or creativity may be more likely to generate ideas that will help the company move forward in the future.
Conclusion: Generally, speaking of promotion, we can identify two distinct types of promotions, which may be called real and nominal promotion. A real promotion results in a person being assigned substantially higher levels of responsibilities in the hierarchical structure of the company. A nominal promotion results in changes elevating the person to a higher level of employment grade that determines the persons pay and other benefit, is not accompanied by any significant increase in responsibilities. Companies may use many different processes and criteria for promotion of staff of the company, and generally these are different for these two types of promotions. Therefore, we will discuss them separately. Criteria For Real Promotions. Real promotions are given based on existence of vacant posts to which a person is promoted, and on the assessment of the ability of individual employees to handle the enhanced responsibilities. The vacancies for promotion are created in several ways, includes promotion or transfer of persons at higher posts, expansion in operations of the company, and people at higher posts retiring or resigning from the company. The assessment of the ability of the candidate for promotion is determined by his current performance, as well as level of capability as demonstrated in current position. In addition, consideration may also be given to the aptitude of the person judged by other means.
Criteria for Nominal Promotions: Nominal promotions are more like a reward to employees for their current performance and for continued reference in the Job and length of service in the current grade. In addition, the Job market also influences this decision substantially. When the demand for people performing a particular type of Jobs is high, may become difficult to retain existing employees at their current level of remuneration and designation. In such cases nominal promotion is giving to retain the employees in the company. Criteria for promoting primarily personnel are the same as the selection criteria: education, seniority, Job previously held and qualities, knowledge, skills and abilities.
Depending n how are used the criteria for promotion in today’s businesses they are manifesting three main trends. 1 . Promotion based on age and seniority in service. Such a trend generalizes the role of experience, considering that the passing years automatically determine amplification of employees’ potential. This approach is typical of small firms,where conservative trends are very strong. In general, in recent years , there was a decrease in the number of companies that give absolute priority to age and seniority, because of non-stimulating character, directly generated tensions, specially among youth. 2. Promotion based on the results, trend with the largest spread.
The strength of this trend is the use of verifiable criteria for promotion,non attacking, based on last measurable results,a crucial element for avoiding the appearance of conflicting situations. Also, promoting the results is staff stimulating towards a higher level of tasks assigned, which has important positive implications for attaining the current objectives. 3. Promotion based on the potential of staff is a tendency that manifests itself management of personnel in modern companies. In other words, are promoted as a priority those employees, taking into account current levels of training, their responsiveness to change, their capacity of effort, the training base, the resilience, the sense of forecast, present actual or latent potential which to allow them to the response to the complex requirements of some top posts 5.
What are the dangers in respect of a Profession? NAS. : The following are some important possibilities where the professionals may act contrary to the public interest and the profession may lose its glamour, respect and usefulness: 1. The professionals may start acting in minded way, making centralization of the profession. When the professionals give more importance to their personal gain and start using their skill and knowledge for selfish purposes for getting the service motto of the profession then there is a danger of centralization of the profession. 2. A profession may be turned into a conspiracy against the public and disregard the social welfare and social responsibility.
This happens when the professionals start misusing their knowledge for selfish purposes and neglect the norms and standards of public morality and social responsibility. . The professional and their association need to maintain and preserve the high standard of the profession. This is possible when there are strict norms for admission and membership in the profession. Such norms should insist and emphasize on the acquisition and possession off high level of certain knowledge , skill, expertise and character of the person who wants to be that type of professional. If there is a compromise on the quality of skill and character expected from the professional, the profession, later on, start losing its social status and public respect.
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