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Movements: Italian Neorealism and French New Wave Films: Citizen Kane; Bicycle Thieves; Breathless Filmmakers: Orson Welles, Vittorio De Sica, François Truffaut, Jean Luc-Godard

1⃣️ Orson Welles and citizen Kane 1. Welles’ background in Radio and Theatre -War of the Worlds broadcast

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2. RKO gives him complete control and “final cut” at the age of 25 with no filmmaking experience.

3. Gregg Toland (cinematographer)

4. Filmmaking techniques 1. Cinematography (deep focus, framing, lighting) 2. Editing (montage vs anti-montage, passage of time) 3. Storytelling (“the Tycoon”, multiple narrators) 4. Set designs (ceilings) 5. Make-up, method acting, radio techniques 6. Controversial release and William Randolph Hearst.

2⃣️ Italian Neorealism- Bicycle Thieves

A. Radically different from Citizen Kane 1. Locked into a historical context (WW II) 2. Different aesthetic (filmmakers not afraid to make an “ugly film”) 3. Different goals than Hollywood films a. No “escapism” or “fantasy” b. Everyday ordinary life is interesting

B. other characteristics: 1. Non-professional actors 2. Street locations (locked into the city) 3. Poor or peasant class 4. Indeterminate endings/future for characters

5. Not a tightly written screenplay 6. Relationship between man and his family as well as man and society 7. stories in present day Italy; filming in the ruble

C. Neorealism in general:

1. What events allowed for this movement to occur? 2. Which film was the forerunner of the movement? 3. Important Italian Neorealist filmmakers: a. Roberto Rossellini (“I don’t want to make beautiful films. I want to make useful ones.” b. Luchino Visconti c. vittorio De sica (Cesare zavattini, writer)

4. Important films with these characteristics: a. Ossessione b. Rome, Open city c. Bicycle Thieves

5. As an aesthetic movement; what types of films were made in Italy prior to Neorealism? 6. Political reaction to what came before a. the “white telephone” films of 30’s 7. Its relationship to Hollywood cinema a. Post WWII Italy/Fascist Government b. paves way for French New Wave movement c. Influence on future films 1. Pee-wee’s Big Adventure . 2. The Pursuit of Happyness 3. A Better Life

3⃣️ The French New Wave- Breathless

a. Year and director of Breathless b. Idea of auteur and critiquing genre conventions c. Active/Passive viewing 1. vs. suspension of disbelief 2. Breaking the 4th wall d. Relationship to Neorealism (commonalities) e. Relationship to American Cinema; respecting Hollywood filmmakers f. Godard’s style in Breathless: 1. jump cuts vs. continuity editing; why did Godard use jump cuts? 2. Handheld, lightweight cameras 3. on location shooting and often script revisions 4. Self-reflexive filmmaking; Deadpool g. Critics as filmmakers- Cinema of the Youth 1. “Cahiers du Cinéma” 2. Caméra-stylo 3. The Auteur Theory

h. Films and filmmakers who set foundation for French New Wave’s international success: 1. The 400 Blows (François Truffaut

2. Hiroshima, Mon Amour (Alain Resnais) 3. Chronicles of a Summer (Jean Rouch and Edgar Morin)

4. Primary (Robert Drew)

i. Impact of European art film on Hollywood and American New Wave of the 1960’s and 70’s

j. Influence of the jump cut: 1. Future films (Deadpool, Wayne’s World, Spaceballs, Ferris Bueller’s Day off) 2. Music videos 3. TV Commercials 4. Movie trailers

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