According to the statistic from World Association of Zoos and Aquariums (WAZA), there are more than 700 million visitors to zoos and aquariums every year. For many people, the zoo is an entertaining and educational place. They also believe zoos can provide good habitats for animals, which has not been true in the past. In fact, the earliest zoo was not built for protecting animals.Nowadays, in the wake of many animal species are nearly extinction as their habitat was destroyed, many zoos start protecting and breeding the endangered species. This research essay will focus on the history of ancient zoos, living situations for animals in zoos, and how zoo rescue endangered animals.
History of Ancient Zoos
The purpose of early zoos are different with the modern zoos. The earliest animal collections served a religious purpose. In ancient Egypt, where the earliest known illustrations of zoo was be found, animals that regarded as sacred often kept in or near temples by pharaohs(Zoos and Animal Rights,7-8). Beyond that, early menagerie zoos served an entertaining purpose for nobleman. For example, lions were trained to fight with each others or human in King Shulgi’s (2094– 2047 BC) of the 3rd Dynasty of Ur (Zoos and Animal Rights,10). In addition, most of early zoos were private so that civilians had limited opportunities to visit these collections; until by the end of the eighteenth and the start of the nineteenth century, those zoos transformed into public gradually (Why Do We Go to the Zoo?, 111).
Living Situation for Animals in Zoos
BODY 3: ( In the past most of zoos had bad living environment and not enough food for animals.)
BODY 4:(Zoos are getting better since the passage of the Endangered Species Act in 1973.)
Rescue Endangered Animals
Conclusion( around 100 words):
Bostock, Stephen St. C.. Zoos and Animal Rights : The Ethics of Keeping Animals, Routledge, 1993. ProQuest Ebook Central, https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/uvic/detail.action?docID=179169.
Che-Castaldo, Judy P., et al. “Evaluating the Contribution of North American Zoos and Aquariums to Endangered Species Recovery.” Nature News, Nature Publishing Group, 28 June 2018, www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-27806-2.
Garrett, Erik A.. Why Do We Go to the Zoo? : Communication, Animals, and the Cultural-Historical Experience of Zoos, Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 2013. ProQuest Ebook Central, https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/uvic/detail.action?docID=1609361.
LCA. “Zoos.” Last Chance for Animals – Factory Farming, www.lcanimal.org/index.php/campaigns/animals-in-entertainment/zoos.
Minteer, Ben. “How Zoos Can Save Our Animals.” World Economic Forum, 30 Oct. 2014, www.weforum.org/agenda/2014/10/zoos-save-animal-species/.
NYC Parks. (2004, January 1). History Of Zoos In Parks : NYC Parks. Retrieved March 28, 2019, from https://www.nycgovparks.org/about/history/zoos
Keri Philips. (2015, October 21). The Ethical Evolution Of Zoos. Radio National. Retrieved March 28, 2019, from https://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/rearvision/the-ethical-history-of-zoos/6869776
RESEARCH PAPERS: SUPPORTING YOU IDEAS WITH OTHERS’ WORDS
When I say that research should be 25% you 75% sources I am speaking literally – but with a very important caution. Your paper must not appear a patchwork of sources. Here is a little trick to get you on the path to successful research writing.
Say your research hypothesis is that there is untapped potential in semiprofessional chicken wrangling. Your scratch outline might look something like this:
1) Costs incurred in semiprofessional chicken wrangling are small compared to earnings
- i) Equipment costs
- ii) Time and costs for travel
iii) Costs competition fees, but winner’s purses
2) Training to be a semiprofessional chicken wrangler presents no insoluble obstacles
- i) Cost of training
- ii) Opportunities for training
iii) Dangers of training
3) Opportunities open to semiprofessional chicken wranglers offer untold rewards
- i) Fame associated with dangerous sports
- ii) Entry sport into other more glamorous forms of fowl wrangling
iii) World travel
So now you need to pick a detail on which to write a paragraph. Say you picked “Opportunities for training.”
Three of your sources discuss opportunities for training as a semiprofessional chicken wrangler.
In Dr Norbert Glictenschnicker’s article, “Obstacles to Chicken Wrangling,” you found this detail: “It is a popular misconception, propagated by chicken wrangling’s major equipment suppliers, that opportunities for training are abundant. In fact, every season there are fewer and fewer licensed trainers offering to take on new students.”
In Tex MacChicken’s book, Foul Wrangling: the Truth Behind the Myth, you found this detail: “Part of the allure of semiprofessional chicken wrangling is that the proliferation of affordable training opportunities means the sordid world that surrounds the sport comes cheap.”
On Mitch Fox’s website, “Other Uses for Chicken,” you found a translation of Henri Poulet’s famous statement, from his seminal work, Mon Amour pour des Poulets: “The semiprofessional chicken wrangler, if truly dedicated to his sport, will always find a willing trainer. But a willing chicken? That is a different thing entirely.”
So now you need to put these three details together in a paragraph. First ask yourself “which is best left whole? Which is best trimmed? Which is best paraphrased? What would be the most effective order to put them in?”
Use the catchiest one whole: “The semiprofessional chicken wrangler, if truly dedicated to his sport, will always find a willing trainer.”
Trim and reintroduce the least informative, most repetitive, or the one least on the point: In his discussion of the sordid world of chicken wrangling, Tex MacChicken argues that the popularity of semiprofessional chicken wrangling owes much to “the proliferation of affordable training opportunities.”
Paraphrase the longest: DrNorbert Glictenschnicker argues that training opportunities are ever dwindling, despite what the equipment suppliers would have us believe.
Then pick an order and paste them in:
1) DrNorbert Glictenschnicker argues that training opportunities are ever dwindling, despite what the equipment suppliers would have us believe. 2) In his discussion of the sordid world of chicken wrangling, Foul Wrangling: the Truth Behind the Myth, Tex MacChicken argues that the popularity of semiprofessional chicken wrangling owes much to “the proliferation of affordable training opportunities.” 3) “The semiprofessional chicken wrangler, if truly dedicated to his sport, will always find a willing trainer.” 71 words
Now add your 25%:
Research suggests that, while trainers are growing scarce, committed enthusiasts should find no obstacle. DrNorbert Glictenschnicker argues that training opportunities are ever dwindling, despite what the equipment suppliers would have us believe (137). Yet Glictenschnicker’s is a disconnected, academic view; those involved in the sport suggest brighter prospects. In his discussion of the sordid world of chicken wrangling, Foul Wrangling, the Truth Behind the Myth, Tex MacChicken argues that the popularity of semiprofessional chicken wrangling owes much to “the proliferation of affordable training opportunities” (895-96). Whichever assessment is accurate, the famous words of Henri Poulet are worth recording: “The semiprofessional chicken wrangler, if truly dedicated to his sport, will always find a willing trainer” (Mon Amour pour des Poulets,qtd in Fox, 324). While one can likely train to become a semiprofessional chicken wrangler, one must consider the dangers of doing. 130 words (without citations)
EMPLOYING SOURCES EXERCISE
Instructions: Create a proper, fully-informative paragraph using the information below.
Research Thesis/Topic: “The internet has had positive impacts on interpersonal relationships.”
Section Thesis/Topic: The internet and dating
Paragraph Thesis/Topic: Cost efficiency and internet dating.
Ralph Kramden, in his book Internet Dating and the Savvy Economist, page 253: “Recently compiled studies show that, for the male internet dater, the actual dating cost per-short term relationship (4-6 dates) has dropped by 35.7%.”
Matthew Greenshirt, writes in a discussion on the website Internet Daters.org, “given the increased cost in date related activities (coffee and movie prices), it is difficult to make any definitive statements regarding changes in the cost of middle-term relationships (2-4 months); nevertheless, there is an undeniable savings in very short tern relationships (1-3 dates) – as there is during the initial, formative stage of longer term relationships.”
Stacey North, in her article “The Cost of Long-term Dating,” page 122: “in a survey of those for whom internet founded relationships had achieved long-term status (6-12 months), while the slight majority (51%) found little change in the overall cost of dating from per-internet figures; for the remainder of those surveyed (49%) the overall cost of dating decreased by 35%.”
- Every paragraph need one topic sentence, it has to be your own words. Can not be cites.
- Each paragraph need 75% citation (3 citations needed)and 25% own opinion about those (including topic sentence), see the example document.
- At least 6 body paragraphs, each one is about 100-150 words. Don’t less than 950 words, and no more than 1050 words.
- Please use at least 3 of the sources that she provided.
- This is suppose to be a paper written by an international student, so please try to use easy-to-understand vocabularies and sentence pattern. Like the two paragraph she already done. If there’s any gramma mistake, correct it for her.
- Write an attractive research paper title.
- APA or MLA style, if any mistake please correct for he.
Peer review check list
——here is teacher’s requirement————————————
English 135 Research Essay (1000 Words = 25%):
This is a research paper not a research project: no original research required.
A)Here you will begin a program of research from a premise/hypothesis, a hunch, or an interest and then research from that footing.
1) For our purposes, research papers can begin from a question to investigate, an hypothesis to investigate, or a statement to support, even an interest to pursue; whichever road you take you must provide facts and details out of authoritative sources and resources.
2) This is either a thesis and details paper that answers a question (Why don’t chickens survive in the wild?), leads to a conclusion (Chicken wrangling has untapped potential for making a living), or proves a thesis (Chickens do not survive in the wild because they are flightless), or it is a simple research paper that “looks at” something (the history of domestic chickens).
3) Research papers always attempt to provide balance: whatever you research, there will always be a variety of takes, points of view, and interpretations of facts, figures or details. You must address as much of this variety as possible.
4) Research papers never prove anything; at best they illustrate or support hypotheses or argue for the validity of assertions.
5) Conclusions in research papers are often speculative (This research suggests that. . .) and they never introduce new ideas, details, or topics.
- B) Your papers will be 1000 (3-4 pages, 8 paragraphs). This requires a certain size of topic, so consider yours carefully. How do I focus a topic to fit the size of my paper? How many points/details do I need to provide? How many categories or organizing principles for classification (the first sentence in the box or group of boxes/the sentences that make up the body of your thesis paragraph)?
If absolutely necessary, this can be done quite mathematically: 8 paragraphs = 1 introduction and 1 conclusion + 6 paragraphs (approx. 18 pieces of evidence.).
This means a maximum of 6 categories or organizing principles for classification (controlling ideas supported by individual pieces of evidence), although you would be wise to have one category controlling a group of paragraphs (one class of paragraphs treating a single organizing principle: 3 categories, each controlling 2 paragraphs providing the details, or 3 controlling 3, etc); you will require, on average, 1-3 individual details/pieces of supporting evidence per paragraph (+ 25% your opinions and thesis). How broad or focused must my topic be to be fully (reasonably fully) explored within 2-6 controlling details and adequately supported by 18 pieces of evidence?
9 Thesis=the big idea
Controlling principle=a subsection of the big idea supporting the big idea
Details paragraph=a subsection of the controlling principle supporting the controlling principle and, therefore, the big idea. The details paragraph opens with a topic sentence that looks up to your thesis and down to the contents of it paragraph.
6 Individual details=a subsection of the details paragraph supporting the details paragraph and, therefore, the controlling principle and, therefore, the big idea. Every detail must clearly serve the topic sentence.
- C) You will employ a minimum of 3 sources: at least one book, one peer-reviewed journal article, and one academic or authoritative internet resource (that is at least one of each: you can, of course, use as many of each as you choose). A single source can provide you with hundreds of pieces of supporting evidence. Once you have asserted your research’s credibility with adequate academic resources you may turn to other less-authoritative resources: blogs, newspapers etc.
- D) You might want to do your research paper on some aspect of you current field of interest (your projected major); this will allow you to familiarize yourself with the parts of and places in the library and its systems containing information that will be of value to you in the near future.
- E) You should not do this on a topic required in another class: to do so will make you susceptible to the allure of recycling.
Researching for Research Papers: Getting What You Want Out of Aether:
1) Go to the library and talk to the Research Librarian: tell her what you are interested in; ask for suggestions of productive ways to focus your ideas; ask her where to look for what you need in online resources.
2) Go to UVic’s library web site, and play around.
3) Search library databases.
Citation and Plagiarism:
This is an academic research paper, and, therefore, you have all the responsibilities of a scholar when writing it. You must cite every fact, figure, and detail, and you must cite them correctly. To not do so is PLAGIARISM. You are allowed little errors in parenthetic and bibliographic style, but if you do not introduce your authorities, use quotation marks when quoting directly, provide proper parenthetic citation after every detail you use, and produce an exhaustive Bibliography, you will have plagiarized, and you will be prosecuted for it.
REMEMBER: academic writing is a discourse; as a writer, you are entering that discourse, and you have a responsibility to allow others to enter it with you. This is where exhaustive citation comes in. APA style hates direct quotation and citing by page numbers; MLA insists upon both. But, then, APA doesn’t want you to write research essays constructed from secondary resources; MLA does. The result of all this is that I will strongly recommend that you use MLA citation style for your research essay. If you insist on using APA, understand that I will still expect that you cite every fact, figure, and detail, whether direct quotes or not, by page or paragraph number.
Your research essay will open with a proper Introduction: it will start with a hook, that interesting fact, anecdote, or detail that catches your reader’s attention; next comes a sentence or two providing any necessary background to bring your reader up to speed (be sure it is necessary); following this, you will proved a clear research thesis, which states that this is research and provides your purpose (argue, review, discuss, look at, etc) and subject; then either as a continuation of your thesis sentence or as one or more separate sentences, you will provide a three-point path statement that sets out your organizing principle (the three main points of discussion) in the order you treat them in the essay to follow; you will close this paragraph with a conclusion, a discursive statement of that with which you hope your reader leaver you essay (your topic not your essay should be the subject of this sentence).
RESEARCH TOPIC SENTENCES
As with all topic sentences, those for research must state exactly what their paragraph will accomplish. Think of them as the thesis statements for your paragraphs, as such they must be comprehensive – telling me every substantive move this paragraph will make, as well as refusing entry to any moves they have not mentioned. These are part of your 25%, so they are not the place for quotes or any detail that needs citation. The idea is that anything you say here will be backed up within the paragraph. Every one of your body paragraphs must begin with a perfect specimen of a research topic sentence.