Behaviorist Cognitive And Social Learning Theory Education Essay
In Miss Tan ‘s Kindergarten 2 category of 15, assuming that kids aged five to six, it had been divided into six groups ; Group A, Group B, Betty, Andy, Tom and Jim. The abilities amongst the kids ranged either mean or above norm.
In add-on, there were a figure of challenges mentioned in Miss Tan ‘s category. From the list of challenges stated, it can be categorized under 3 classs ; Behaviorist, Cognitive, and Social Learning theory.
Therefore, in this written essay, with the usage of assorted theories from assorted theoreticians, I will furthur lucubrate on the different types of challenges met in Miss Tan ‘s category.
Betty, being the lone kid, frequently fights over toys with her friends over sharing of playthings. Jean Piaget had come up with four phases in cognitive developments, viz. Sensorimotor phase, Pre-operational phase, Concrete operational phase and Formal Operational phase ( Huitt and Hummel, 2003 ) . Hence, kids in Miss Tan ‘s category falls under Piaget ‘s Pre-operational phase. Harmonizing to Huitt and Hummel ( 2003 ) , it was stated that egoism in kids really much exist in this phase. Besides, kids are engaged in symbolic drama at aged five to six. On top of that, Betty is an lone kid, her prosocial accomplishments may non be every bit developed as other kids with siblings. As mentioned from Preusse ( 2008 ) , for sharing to happen among kids, kids ‘s cognitive and emotional abilities are to be developed. In a sense, kids needed to be able to see themselves executing a certain undertaking and demoing empathy towards other kids severally. Merely when these three elements are present, kids so will be able to portion.
As for Betty, she is confronting cognitive issues. Therefore, it would be harder on her to portion her playthings with other kids. Besides, being an lone kid, Betty may hold a higher degree of egoism.
In add-on, Betty and Tom are active kids. There were three constituents of personality under Sigmund Freud ‘s Theory of Personality ; ID, Ego and Super self-importance ( Changingminds, 2002-2011 ) . In relation to Freud ‘s Theory of Personality, Betty and Tom may be missing in the Ego facet. It was theorized that kids under the Ego facet should be able to understand that certain behavior may take to certain effects ( Changingminds, 2002-2011 ) . Such effect may be interlinked with kids ‘s societal interaction with their equals.
Bing active kids, they may non be able to see the effects due to their personalities. As a consequence, Betty and Tom could be missing in the Ego facet being active kids. As for Betty, she may be missing in the logical thinking accomplishment, which resulted in her combat with other kids over sharing of playthings. On the other manus, Tom is normally non cognizant that he pushed his friends which led other friends avoiding him. For these grounds, it had surely affected Betty and Tom ‘s societal facet.
Furthermore, Tom is unprompted and was ill coordinated. As mentioned above, he is incognizant when he pushes his friends. Albert Bandura ‘s Social Learning theory shared about how people ‘s behaviors can be learned through detecting others, patterning or even imitation of others ( Learning Theories Knowledgebase, 2011 ) . In effect, Tom ‘s impulsiveness may be a consequence of imitation of others or his observations on the people around him.
With respect to Howard Gardner ‘s Multiple Intelligences theory, Tom ‘s ailing coordination may be due to the deficiency of bodily kinaesthetic intelligence. Nolen ( 2003 ) elaborated on the term bodily kinaesthetic intelligence as 1 who has really developed mulct and gross motor accomplishments. Likewise, one with bodily kinaesthetic intelligence is able to execute moves that require chiseled actions or control.
Above that, Tom ‘s issue may be linked to how his encephalon plants. There might a deficient in the map of parietal lobe and cerebellum. These two maps are associated to one ‘s coordination of motions, orientation and position ( Serendip, 1994-2011 ) . Hence, with the under developed of his motor accomplishments and the maps of his encephalon, it caused Tom to be ill coordinated.
Following, Andy was a diffident and recluse male child. Both of his challenges can be related to Maslow ‘s Hierarchy of Needs. As a diffident male child, Andy ‘s sociables demands may non be met based on Maslow ‘s Hierarchy of Needs. Andy may be missing in interactions with other people which had reduced his demands of friends, a sense of belonging and love ( Netmba, 2002-2010 ) .
Based on Maslow ‘s Hierarchy of Needs, Andy ‘s esteem demands may non be met which led him to be withdrawn. Harmonizing to Netmba ( 2002-2010 ) , there are two types of regards ; internal and external. Therefore, esteems demands are mentioning to self regard, accomplishment, attending, acknowledgment and repute. As a consequence, there may be a possibility that Andy is missing in one or two regards demands which had caused him to be withdrawn.
Besides being a bright male child, Jim was besides sensitive. On top of that, Jim calls when he feels frustrated or he did non execute up to his personal outlooks. Howard Gardner Multiple Intelligence on Intrapersonal shared that one component of intrapersonal intelligence is that the kid may be in demand of acknowledgment and congratulationss often ( Nolen, 2003 ) . In conformity to encephalon research ( Serendip, 1994-2011 ) , the limbic system which is besides known as emotion encephalon may hold affected Jim as he might non able to command his emotions.
In all, without recognition from people around him and the deficient of the limbic system, it may hold led Jim to experience defeated and call when he feels that he does non run into ain personal outlooks.
Children in Group A were classified to be able to number up to 10. Harmonizing to Queensland Government ( 2003 ) , kids aged five to six should be able to number up to 20. Therefore, in relation to Howard Gardner ‘s Multiple Intelligence, kids in Group A may be in short of the ability to observe forms, logical thought every bit good as the ability to ground deductively ( Nolen, 2003 )
Harmonizing to U.S. National Library of Medicine ( 2011 ) , kids aged five to six should hold a broad vocabulary of about 2000 words. However, kids in Group A are merely able to place letters and simple sight words. Lev Vygotsky ( 1978 ) theorized that Zone of Proximal Development ( ZPD ) refers to a kid ‘s ability to execute a undertaking with and without aid from grownup.
Similarly, deficiency of ZPD may use to kids in Group B ; able to compose simple sentences and the capableness to make add-on up to 20. Without aid from grownups, kids may non be able to make their possible. As a effect, it had led kids in Group A and B to hold such challenges.
Not merely Betty was a slow scholar, she has trouble numbering up to five. Swimming ( 2008 ) shared about Arnold Gesell ‘s theory on ripening that kids were non allowed to turn at their ain rate. Likewise for Betty, she may be missing in logical mathematical intelligence, theorized by Howard Gardner as she has trouble numbering up to five. Bing a slow scholar, it could be of import for Betty if she could be able to turn and larn at her ain gait.
Last in the list for cognitive challenges are Tom and Jim. Both of them have to fight in reading and composing letters in sequence. Nolen ( 2003, p.1 ) quoted “ They have great ability to utilize words with lucidity. ” However, Tom and Jim do non expose such facet. Following Howard Gardner ‘s Multiple Intelligence, both Tom and Jim may be missing in lingual intelligence.
Despite being above norm male childs, Tom and Jim ‘s portion of the encephalon may be non to the full developed. Harmonizing to Serendip ( 1994-2011 ) , Tom and Jim occipital lobe could be affected as this portion of the cerebrum is related to ocular processing. Due to this defect, it may hold resulted in the troubles of reading and composing letters in sequence.
As supra mentioned, Betty battles with her friends over sharing of plaything. Harmonizing to Albert Bandura ‘s Social Learning theory about how people ‘s behaviors can be learned through detecting others, patterning or even imitation of others ( Learning Theories Knowledgebase, 2011 ) , it could be a instance whereby Betty did non hold the chance to larn how to portion her plaything as she was the lone kid.
Therefore, Bronfenbrenner ‘s ecology theory will be able to come in topographic point every bit good. The micro system which consists Betty ‘s household and school, should farther steer Betty in her behavior ( Division of Educational Studies, 2008 ) . Equally good as the meso system that is, for illustration, the relationship between the place and school, should work together to assist better Betty ‘s behavior.
Last but non least, Andy, a slow scholar, may be missing in lingual intelligence. Howard Gardner mentioned that one with lingual intelligence is good with words and through linguistic communication, it might a p of communicating ( Nolen, 2003 ) . However, Andy barely speaks due to speech and linguistic communication troubles. Therefore, in relation to Howard Gardner ‘s theory, lingual intelligence affects one ‘s verbal ability every bit good as their ocular accomplishments.
In add-on, portion of Andy ‘s encephalon, the frontal lobe, may hold affected him. For case, due to his frontlet lobe which is associated to parts of address and emotions, it had caused Andy ‘s address and linguistic communication troubles ( Serendip, 1994-2011 ) .
Similarly for Andy, Bronfenbrenner ‘s ecology theory will be able relevant to Andy ‘s state of affairs. Harmonizing to Division of Educational Studies ( 2008 ) , through the place and school ( micro system ) and the better relationship between place and school ( meso system ) , it might further heighten Andy ‘s to get the better of his address and linguistic communication trouble.
Harmonizing to Miss Tan ‘s category, I ‘ve identified six different larning demands. First, to assist kids in Group A identify more simple sight words. Second, to assist kids in Group B to execute add-on activity by acknowledging Numberss. Third, to assist Betty heighten her prosocial accomplishments such as sharing her plaything with her friends. Following, is to assist Andy talk up with the people around him. Subsequently, is to assist Tom write letters in sequence. Last, is to assist Jim to be able to command his emotions.
One facet for kids to larn better will be the learning environment. Highland Council Education, Culture and Sport Service ( 2010 ) mentioned that a contributing and exciting larning environment allow kids to pass on with their friends during the procedure of acquisition and instruction.
Identify more sight words
Besides holding a contributing environment, in order to run into kids ‘s acquisition demands, the schoolroom may necessitate to be aesthetically pleasant to the kids as good. For case, to assist kids recognize words, kids will necessitate to be exposed to those words. In add-on, instructor uses phonics to foster guide kids. Therefore, what a instructor can make is to make a word wall for the kids. Additionally, teacher designs another “ I can read! ” wall that shows that kids are able to place certain words.
For this word wall, teacher will present simple words to more complex words. With the usage of phonics, simple words may be words incorporating sounds of consonants and more complex words refer to words that include blends. For each hebdomad, teacher topographic point two words for kids to recognize.
With every word that the kids recognised, instructor will put it into the “ I can read! ” wall. However, teacher has to be observant of kids ‘s acquisition procedure and advancement. If a kid needs more clip to larn, instructor should follow kid ‘s gait and non hotfoot kid.
In this manner, kids emotional demands will be met as kids will experience good approximately themselves as they are able to recognize more words. On the other manus, if kids needed more clip to finish this undertaking, they know that the instructor is non forcing them excessively hard.
Performing add-on activity
Similarly, kids need to be exposed to Numberss for them to execute add-on activities. Therefore, instructor can set on a figure chart up to 20 in the Mathematics acquisition corner. Additionally, teacher can plan an “ I can number! ” chart for kids.
To run into kids ‘s acquisition demands, Teacher foremost rote counts with kids from one to twenty. After that, teacher introduces 10s and 1s to kids. On top of that, instructor does add-on activity with kids harmonizing to the complexness of the activity, get downing from the simplest.
In order to run into kids ‘s emotions demands, with every equation that the kids did right, kids will put it onto “ I can number! ” chart. By making so, it may assist kids to experience good about themselves.
On the reverse, some kids may non be every bit fast as other kids in the group. Therefore, it is of import that instructor have one to one session with these kids. Besides, teacher has to pattern with kids daily for slower kids grasp the mathematics concept. Most significantly, instructor should ne’er set the kid down if he or she can non the equation.
Enhance prosocial accomplishments
Following, teacher has to assist Betty to better her prosocial accomplishments. In order to assist Betty, instructor has to reenforce the kid ‘s societal interaction with other kids ( Essa, 2003 ) . Furthermore, instructor should reenforce other kids to interact with Betty every bit good ( Essa, 2003 )
As Betty is a slow scholar, in order to run into her larning demands, instructor has to clearly show to her what does interacting with other kids mean. In add-on, teacher needs to demo Betty the manner to portion playthings with other kids and explain to her that the playthings do non entirely belong to Betty.
On the other manus, instructor can assist to run into Betty ‘s emotional demands is by foregrounding to their kids that they should seek to interact with Betty. Likewise, other kids can portion with Betty their playthings and Betty may pattern such behaviors. By making this, instructor and other kids may assist Betty to experience that a two manner communicating is needed to assist Betty in her prosocial accomplishments.
Enhance address and linguistic communication
In order to run into Andy ‘s acquisition demands and to do him speak, instructor can promote and reenforce speaking for him ( Essa, 2003 ) . Teacher observes and picks out a certain activity that Andy may bask the most. From at that place, instructor may seek to acquire child talk about the activity.
As for Andy ‘s emotional demands, instructor should non coerce Andy to talk up. Most significantly, teacher should understand that Andy may get down to speak when he feels more comfy and when he is ready.
Writing letters in sequence
To assist Tom run into his larning demands, instructor can get down a simple activity with him. For illustration, instructor may desire to pattern with Tom the manner to compose the letters. Teacher starts by keeping his manus to let Tom to hold the feel how to compose certain missive. After so, instructor will cut down the clip that she helps Tom. However, this has to be done over a longer period of clip.
For Tom ‘s emotional demands, instructor may desire to pattern on one missive per twenty-four hours with Tom. This may give Tom more clip and to assist him come on at his ain gait. In add-on, Tom may non experience to emphasize over the day-to-day practicing of composing letters.
Have control over ain emotions
As Jim is a bright male child and to run into his larning demands, instructor may desire to put clear outlooks with Jim. Teacher explains and discusses with Jim the methods he can utilize when he feels frustrated.
In add-on, instructor can hold a chart for Jim that shows how many times he can command his emotions. The chart may assist to reenforce Jim ‘s positive behavior. Most significantly, teacher demand to show to Jim that she is pleased and happy that Jim is bettering and she would wish to see Jim expose such behavior ( Essa, 2003 ) .